WILSON (Wilson), Thomas Woodrow( Teachers and 28 th U.S. president, Nobel Peace Prize, 1919)
Comments for WILSON (Wilson), Thomas Woodrow
Biography WILSON (Wilson), Thomas Woodrow
December 28, 1856, Mr.. - February 3, 1924
Thomas Woodrow Wilson, a teacher and 28 th U.S. president, was born in a Scottish family in Staunton (Virginia). He was the third of four children and the eldest son of a Presbyterian minister, Joseph Ragglsa Wilson and Janet Woodrow. Father V., a pious and learned man, has devoted a lot of time educating his son.
In 1875, Mr.. V. enrolled in the College of New Jersey (later converted to Princeton University), where he studied the theory of the state. After graduating from college in 1879, he opened a law practice, but soon took up research work in history at Johns Hopkins University. In 1885, In. married Ellen Louise Axon, who bore him three daughters. Published his work 'Board of the Congress' - an analysis of American legal practice,. in 1886. received his doctorate in philosophy.
In. taught in the Bayan-Maur-college and university Uelsli, and in 1890. became a professor of law and political economy at Princeton University. V. became famous thanks to the bright eloquence and inspirational lectures, which were read as if impromptu. In 1902, Mr.. Board of Trustees unanimously elected him president of the university.
In this position in. showed all the strengths and weaknesses, which are later described as his policy. He revised the curriculum has changed the reward system, increased the level of. Convinced of the need for individual learning,. introduced a system of small discussion groups. Deepening reform, in 1907. V. planned to divide the students in colleges, but the opposition forced him to abandon this plan. In 1910,. after another conflict with trustees in. resigned.
At the same time in. accepted the proposal put up a candidate for election for governor of New Jersey from the Democratic Party. To the surprise of professional politicians, he won with nearly the most impressive margin in the history of the state. With his energetic promotion of the legislature undertook significant reforms, laws were passed about the primary elections, corruption, debt entrepreneurs, public utilities. The rapid rise in. brought him nationwide fame. At the Congress, Democratic Party 1912. He was nominated for the presidency, the election in November the same year in. defeated the Republican candidate and became president of the United States.
As a southerner, and sharing the many prejudices against the colored, in. nonetheless taken measures in order to enlist their support in the elections. Black leaders in t. h. U. Dubois, could not help but draw attention to the statement in. racial discrimination. The call for 'fair conduct of the affairs' brought in. voices of many northerners. Can not say that in. deceived to be trusted, t. to. he advanced to positions of more color than any of his Republican predecessors - Theodore Roosevelt or William Howard Taft, but even during the First World War in. did nothing to abolish segregation in the armed forces.
After coming to power in the midst of progressivist movement in. adopted a program aimed at bringing the restoration of free enterprise and the abolition of special privileges. Under the influence of the president Congress approved reduced rates, stepped income tax, adopted a law on the federal reserve, increased control over the business by the Federal Trade Commission. Before the election, 1916. V. spent several laws on loans to farmers, inheritance, on the railways, made investing in the construction of roads. These measures signified a progressive increase in the role of the federal government in American life.
In the area of foreign policy in. took the anti-imperialist positions. He tried to bring in U.S. relations with other countries in the spirit of fairness, respect and goodwill. 'It is dangerous to form the foreign policy in terms of material interest', - said in. in 1913. On proposals. Congress repealed the clause releasing the U.S. from paying duties on the Panama Canal, in. also promised that the U.S. will not use the Monroe Doctrine to intervene in Latin America. Unfortunately, during his leadership of American troops were introduced in Nicaragua, Santo Domingo, Haiti, Mexico. As a member of the American Society of Peace of 1908, in. hoped to make the U.S. a leading advocate of peace. He supported international arbitration, extended the contracts prepared by Elihu Root, speaking for the reduction of armaments.
Since the beginning of the First World War. proclaimed policy of neutrality and has repeatedly tried to bring the warring parties to the negotiating table. In 1916, Mr.. V. was re-elected president on 22 January 1917. submitted to Congress a plan for promoting peace through the establishment of the League of Nations. Nine days later, Germany announced the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare. After the Germans submarines torpedoed in March, three American ships, in. convened a special session of Congress, which recalled that the United States is 'one of the main defenders of the rights of humanity'. Proclaiming that 'right is more precious than peace', in. proposed to declare war, which was done on April 6, 1917
Based on the fact that the United States entered the war to prepare the world for democracy,. saw a new world order based on reason and mutual cooperation. January 8, 1918, Mr.. He outlined a peace program of 14 points. The first five items included open diplomacy, freedom of navigation, equality in international trade, arms reduction, coordination of colonial policy. The following eight items related to the revision of boundaries on the basis of self-determination. 14-th item provided for the creation 'of the Universal Association of peoples, which would give mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity of large and small'.
In November, 1918. Germany requested a cease-fire. In 1919, Mr.. V. and other representatives of the Allied countries met in Paris to work out contract. In February, the Commission unanimously approved the draft of the League of Nations. He became part of the Versailles Treaty, signed in June. The newly created League of Nations declared open diplomacy, . registration contracts, . gradual reduction of armaments, . announced an effort to prevent war through collective action, . commitment to international arbitration, the headquarters of the League housed in Geneva (Switzerland),
. At the first meeting of the Council of the League of January 16, 1920, Mr.. made by B.
In. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1919. Informing about the decision, the chairman of the Norwegian Parliament Anders Buen Ionsen paid tribute to the winner for the introduction of 'fundamental law of humanity in contemporary international politics'. Buen added: "The fundamental concept of justice will never disappear, but rather will be strengthened and impressed the name of President Wilson in the minds of future generations'.
Taking the prize, the U.S. ambassador to Norway, Albert G. Shmedeman read the appeal W., which said: "Mankind has not yet freed itself from the unspeakable horror of war ... I think that our generation has made a remarkable step forward. But the wise will assume that the work has just begun. This will be a long labor. "
Despite all the efforts of VA, the Treaty of Versailles did not meet expectations for the post-war pacification. Ruinous reparations, forced confession and unilateral disarmament treaty spawned a new wave of militarism, which gradually led to a new world war in 1939
Returning home in 1919, in. began to seek Senate ratification of the Versailles Treaty and accession to the League of Nations. 'There can be no question that we have ceased to be a world power - explained in. - The question is whether we abandon the moral leadership, which we offer '. The Senate, which was dominated by Republicans, divided into supporters of the League, moderate, demanding amendments, and irreconcilable. Having decided to appeal directly to the people, in. went on a trip to the states. Speeches, interviews and travel had exhausted his strength, and in the end of September 1919. he fell ill, and on 2 October he had a stroke. Seven weeks later, he recovered enough to give instructions to the Democrats - to reject the amendment to the contract. However, in November, both versions of the treaty were rejected by the Senate.
In March 1920,. public opinion forced the senators to return to the question of the Treaty of Versailles. Again. did not have the seven votes to two-thirds required for ratification. At the end of the year for re-election to Congress finally buried the idea, it was revived only after the Second World War in the form of the United Nations.
Health In. was undermined, and in 1920,. He left his post. The former president stayed in Washington (DC) with his second wife, Edith Bolling Galt, whom he married Dec. 18, 1915, six months after the death of first wife. Defeated in the matter of the League, in. was nevertheless confident that the future will confirm the correctness of his. 'The world is ruled by ideals - he said to his friend, - only fools think otherwise'. In 1923, speaking on the radio in connection with the Day of the armistice in. urged Americans to "abandon selfish motives and to return to higher ideals and aims of foreign policy '. Three months later, in. died in his sleep. On his tomb is carved a sword hilt which is framed in the form of a cross.
Politics. became the subject of lengthy discussions. Internationalists and pacifists rejected the Versailles Treaty in connection with the departure from the principles of V. On the other hand, Germany has suffered from overly harsh environment of peace. Isolationists and moderate accused. that he had ignored in Paris, his advisors, conducted secret negotiations, do not take into account the interests of sovereignty, including in the contract idea of the League of Nations.
. Historians explain the failure of the project of the League in the Senate, intolerance, dogmatism, self-satisfaction, V., bitter dispute with Henry Lodge, inertia and inability to penetrate the Senate internationalized ideals of B.
. We should not forget about the achievements in
. He had a clear idea about the role of president and to leverage their human. V. took office, having deep knowledge in the field of management, and ensure that the reform laws. The end of remaining champion of the poor Americans,. tried to help the poor and abroad. In the all-conquering eloquence. Western Europeans have created a vision of universal peace and brotherhood. For Europeans. became a symbol of human aspiration to improve and to a world free from war, injustice and hatred. Despite the fact that the U.S. rejected the moral leadership offered by VA, enduring his credit is the establishment of the first global organization designed to preserve the peace.