FRIED (Fried), Alfred( Austrian journalist and pacifist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1911)
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Biography FRIED (Fried), Alfred
November 11, 1864, Mr.. - May 5, 1921
Austrian journalist and pacifist Alfred Hermann Fried was born in Vienna, the son of Samuel Freda and Bertha Engel. Uncle Alfred's maternal line.
Moritz Engel, published the magazine 'Wiener salonblatt'. F. attend school until the age of 15, when engaged in selling books. Moving to Berlin, he was in 1887, Mr.. opened here own publishing house.
Around the same time, S. interested in the activities of Bertha von Suttner, whose anti-war novel 'Lay Down Your Arms' ( "Die Waffen nieder") has won wide popularity. In 1891, Mr.. Suttner founded the Austrian Peace Society, and inspired by her example of F. the following year founded a similar society in Germany. Suttner has agreed to edit the journal, published by F. from 1891. and received the same name as the novel - 'Lay Down Your Arms'. Three years later began to leave the other blog 'Guardian of the world' ( "Die Friedenswarte"), which F. published and edited until the last day of life. Soon after the publication was, in the words of Norman Angell, 'the most effective in the peace movement all over the world'.
When F. joined the struggle for peace, who later devoted his entire life, European countries are actively arming; the minds of supporters of peace are increasingly mastered the idea of international arbitration and disarmament. The work of F. maintained regular contact with pacifists throughout Europe, in T. h. Polish economist and financier Ivan Bliokh. As an advisor to the Russian Emperor Nicholas II, Bliokh helped convince him of the need to convene a 1-second Hague Peace Conference of 1899. This event played a significant role in the development of the views of F.
Until that time, F. considered the limitation of armaments and the development of international law by the shortest route to peace. After the conference, he began to gravitate toward political and economic internationalism, making sure that peace can be achieved only through understanding the causes of war and anarchy, as well as their explanation of the broad masses. 'War is not so much a condition - wrote F., - a symptom of many conditions - international anarchy. If we want to push a war a just solution of disputes, we should replace the anarchy of the international order '. The change in tactics to achieve peace made F, withdraw from society Germanskogo world after his return from Vienna in 1903
Being under the influence of the Hague events, F. upset about the negative public attitude toward pacifism. He has repeatedly criticized the 'priests of the petty bourgeoisie - the newspaper bosses who take delight in mockery and jokes about the decisions of the conference'. F. also sorry about the lack of, in his view, highlight issues of international politics in the press. 'The results of any cycling race - wrote F., - described in detail and willing to savor the audience, the most impoverished actor at the local theater scene has more fame than the people who create the world's history'.
. Continuing its internationalist activity, F
. in 1905. began to publish 'Yearbook of international life' ( "Annuaire de la Vie Internationale"). Protection of the world were the focus of several of his books, in particular the 'Handbook of the movement for peace' ( "Handbuch der Friedensbewegung", 1911). It contained historical overview of the movement, biographies of leading pacifists, peace conferences, reports, information on the leadership of the peacekeeping organizations
From Tobias Asser F. shared the Nobel Peace Prize 1911. In his speech, the representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee praised the Levlann F. as a 'self-taught, who with true Germanic perseverance and diligence has reached academic heights'. Levlann welcomed him as the most 'working writer and pacifist in the past 20 years'. F. not present at the ceremony, the Nobel lecture them not provided.
F. was the author of 70 books and pamphlets, as well as numerous articles and translator pacifist literature, but its terms of interests does not stop. He was among the founders of the Society for International Understanding, was also in Berne Peace Bureau, International Institute for Peace, was secretary of the Society of pacification in Central Europe. Leiden University awarded F. honorary doctorate in 1913
Before the First World War in 1914. F. located in Vienna, where his pacifist activities and anti-government articles were a pretext for accusations of treason. Hiding in Switzerland, F. continued to publish 'Guards of the world', stood for the advancement of war. It began publication of another internationalist magazine 'understanding of international and intergovernmental organizations' ( "Blatter fur Internationale Verstandigung und zwischenstaatliche Organisation").
After the war, F. was mired in ideological feuds over the conditions of peace. At the international meeting of workers in Bern, he participated in the negotiation of peace proposals. Speaking with a series of articles, imposes accountability for the war on the leaders of Germany, F. Yet not once criticized the injustice of the Versailles Treaty. In his book "My War Diary '(" Mein Kriegstagebuch "), he talked about his activities and experiences of the war years.
In the postwar years, F. often said that World War I confirmed the importance of internationalism and justice pacifist analysis of world politics. Being a supporter of the League of Nations, he nevertheless denied the feasibility of an international police force. The most important task of the League, wrote to F. in the 'Neue Zeitung Tsyuriher' is to 'gain the moral authority that would give weight to its decisions and will distinguish them from the anarchist enterprises of various governments'. The authority of the League could bring, according to F., the focus on 'building a supranational system of law and justice'.
F. married three times: in 1889, Mr.. He married Gertrude Gnadenfeld, then at Martha Hollender and in 1908. Teresa on Folandt.
The fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I prevented F. past savings. Returning to the capital of the vanquished people, he was faced with outright hostility, then with poverty and obscurity. In 1921, Mr.. He died in Vienna from pulmonary disease.