HILL Archibald Vivien (Hill Archibald Vivian)( English physiologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1922)
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Biography HILL Archibald Vivien (Hill Archibald Vivian)
September 26, 1886, Mr.. - June 3, 1977
English physiologist Archibald Hill Vivien was born in Bristol in Ada Priscilla (Ryumney) Hill, Jonathan Hill, timber traders in the fifth generation, who left the family when his son was three years. H. and his younger sister, Muriel (who later became a biochemist) raised by his mother, a very strong and friendly woman. Up to 7 years Archibald was educated at home mother, then, when the family moved to the neighborhood of Weston-super-Mare, he enrolled in a small prep school. The next move occurred in 1899, this time in Tiverton, in Devonshire, and X. preparing for college Blyundella, where he showed great aptitude in math. At school, he joined the debating club and participated in athletics competitions.
Becoming Fellow, X. in 1905. enrolled at Trinity College in Cambridge to study mathematics. He was a brilliant student and graduated in two years instead of the usual three years. By this time interest X. weak in mathematics, and he turned for advice to your manager, physiologist Walter Morel, Fletcher, who together with Frederic Goulendom Hopkins conducted the study of biochemical properties of frog muscle. Fletcher suggested that X. do physiology, which in his opinion, more in keeping with the intellectual abilities of X. Having council Fletcher, X. immersed in the study of this science, with emphasis on studies of chemistry and physics, and in 1909. completed its natural formation, passed examinations with distinction.
After graduating from college, receiving a scholarship of George Henry Lewes, X. began work in the physiological laboratory at Cambridge. ZH.N. Langley, head of the laboratory, suggested that X. continue to study the physiological characteristics of frog muscle, initiated by Fletcher and Hopkins, examines the role of heat in muscle contraction. With the help of a thermocouple (instrument for measuring temperature by registering variations of electric current) X. found that 'the mechanism of muscle contraction associated with the process of transforming the energy of chemical reactions into electrical energy of high potential'.
In 1911, a year after his election as a member of the Board of Trinity College, X. went to Germany, where he became acquainted with the latest developments in the field of physiology. Carl Byurker of Tubingen University, showed him the device difficult thermocouples, and from Friedrich Paschen, he learned how to improve the design of a galvanometer (instrument for measuring the strength of small electric currents). Returning after 4 months in Cambridge, X. continued his experiments, studying the energy transformation taking place in the muscle. In the next three years, his research focused on measuring the heat, . released during muscle contraction and produced by mechanical work, . as well as to clarify the relationship of the data obtained with the biochemical aspects of muscle activity.,
. Shortly after the X
. became a teacher of physical chemistry at Cambridge, the First World War broke out, he volunteered to join the regiment of Cambridge, receiving the rank of captain, then major. After his stipendiatstva at Trinity College in 1916. he was granted a subsidy of King's College Cambridge. At the same time, X. participated in the implementation of government programs to improve anti-aircraft artillery. For this work in 1918. He was awarded the Order. In the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
After the war, X. continued his study of physiology of muscles in Cambridge, but in 1920,. left, received a professorship at the department of physiology at the University of Manchester. There, in the course of experiments, he confirmed earlier results that the muscle of the frog legs generates heat during both phases of its activity. Isolation of heat previously associated only with the moment of muscle contraction. H. showed, however, that heat is produced in the initial phase during the reduction, and in the recovery phase.
. He also proved that the formation of heat in the initial phase of the presence of oxygen is not necessary, in the same phase of recovery, on the contrary, the presence of oxygen necessary
. Even before X research. Fletcher and Hopkins showed that the contracting muscle in the frog produced lactic acid, which decomposes in the presence of oxygen. In view of these data X. to bind the formation of the initial heat with the formation of lactic acid from its derivatives and the formation of heat during recovery - with its oxidation and decomposition.
. From the findings to the, . evidence, . that heat, . formed during both phases of reduction, . enough for the oxidation of only a small amount of lactic acid, . followed, . that some of the lactic acid remains unutilized potential in its derivatives,
. H. his research in parallel with the experiments of the German-American biochemist Otto Meyerhoff, who found that lactic acid from glycogen, the main storage carbohydrates in the tissues. Meyerhof also found that only a small amount of lactic acid is oxidized after reduction and the energy released during oxidation, takes the remainder of lactic acid back into glycogen.
In 1923, Mr.. H. received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries in the field of heat buildup in the muscle '. He shared the prize with the Meyerhoff. After reviewing the results of his work in his Nobel lecture X. drew attention to the amazing complexity of the physiology of muscles and noted the need for further experiments, . which would cover all aspects of the statics, . dynamics and thermodynamics, . He also stressed the importance of creating and using new laboratory instruments.,
. In the year of receipt of the Nobel Prize X
. became professor of physiology at University College in London,. Three years later he became a professor of Royal Society of London. Returning to the study of muscle activity in humans, he found that most of the lactic acid formed in muscle during moderate stress, oxidized immediately after its withdrawal, and therefore there is a rapid restoration of muscle. In the period of intense stress, however, in the muscle accumulates a large amount of lactic acid, which diffuses into the blood and other tissues of the body. Since resynthesis, or oxidation, lactic acid must diffuse back into the muscle tissue, needed for the restoration of several hours.
To describe the oxygen deficit and excess lactic acid during periods of severe stress, X. coined the term 'oxygen debt'. Lack of oxygen is compensated after unloading due to deep breathing. Concept X. explained the processes occurring in the Athlete during the period of strong pressure, and the subsequent removal of the oxygen debt at the stage of recovery. Some studies X. were performed at Cornell University in Ithaca, where he lectured on chemistry in 1927. In subsequent research X. turned to the study of the mechanism of nerve impulses and found that they also form the heat.
With worsening political situation in Germany, he became outspoken opponent of the Nazi policy. In 1933, when his colleague and friend Paschen dismissed from the University of Tubingen, and his place taken by Johannes Stark, a supporter of the Nazis, X. made an accusation the government of Hitler's persecution of Jews and dissident scientists. In the same year he participated in organizing the Society of Academic Assistance (later - Society for Science and Education), whose members helped to find refuge scientists fleeing Nazi persecution.
. With the increasing threat of war X
. experienced a growing shortage of time. He also was a member of the Committee for the Scientific Study of Defense (Committee Tizarda) and a leading expert in the Central Council of scientific and technical workers, . dealt with the effective participation of British scientists in military developments,
. After the United Kingdom in 1939. declared war on Germany, the laboratory X. been eliminated, and he was in the next year became an adviser to the War Cabinet. Then he was elected to parliament from the University of Cambridge and a few days later he was sent to Washington as part of a diplomatic delegation to discuss military cooperation between Britain, the USA and Canada. Moreover, X. become a member of the university scholarship committee, the Society for Scholars and the Conference Committee at the Department of scientific and economic research. In 1943 ... 1944. H. was sent to India to gather information for making necessary arrangements for the national scientific and economic studies. By the end of the war X. reorganized its laboratory in University College. Prior to his retirement in late 1952. He continued research on the physiology of muscles.
In 1913, Mr.. H. married Margaret Neville Keynes, the sister of the English economist John Maynard Keynes. They had two sons and two daughters.
X. died June 3, 1977, Mr.. from complications after a viral infection.
'X. was a man of traditional tastes and habits - Bernard Katz wrote in his memoirs about him - simple in his feelings in a sincere and friendly relations without making pomposity. His reference book was the Bible, he liked to read the classics, especially Rudyard Kipling and Mark Twain. "
X. was a member of more than 40 scientific societies and has received honorary degrees from 17 universities, including Edinburgh, Oxford, Johns Hopkins and Columbia. He was awarded the Order of Honor (1946) and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1948), as well as many other medals and prizes.