Sully Prudhomme (Sully-Prudhomme), Rene( French poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1901)
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Biography Sully Prudhomme (Sully-Prudhomme), Rene
March 16, 1839, Mr.. - September 7, 1907
French poet Rene Sully-Prudhomme (real name Rene Francois Armand Prudhomme) was born in Paris. His father died when the boy turned two years, and the family was left without a livelihood. Together with his widowed mother, Clotilde (Keio) Prudhomme and older sister Renee moved to his uncle. At the age of eight he entered the Lycц╘e Bonaparte, where fond of mathematics, classical languages and French prosody. After graduating from the Lyceum Rene, one of the best students in the class in math, preparing to enter a polytechnic school, intending to become an engineer, but because of serious eye disease he was forced to abandon their plans.
. Forced to seek employment, C.-P
. arranged a clerk at the factory, and since 1860. earning a living, serving as a clerk in a notary. In the evenings, Rene studying philosophy and wrote poetry. His first collection of poetry 'Stanzas and Poems' ( "Stances et poemes") he released in 1865. under the pseudonym Sully Prudhomme (full name of the father) and was commended by the influential critic Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve.
The following year, the publisher Alphonse Lemerre has included poems SA-P. the collection, entitled 'Modern Parnassus' ( "Le Parnasse contemporain"), who appeared literary manifesto 'parnassians' - young poets who spoke against the lyrical exaltation of the Romantic school. Lemaire also reissued 'Stanzas and Poems' and a collection of sonnets S.-P. 'Tests' ( "Les Epreuves"). During the next three years from the pen of the young poet's written on the ancient myth 'Augean stables' ( "Les Ecuries d'Augias", . 1866), . collection 'Italian Sketches' ( "Croquis italiens", . 1866 ... 1868) and 'Loneliness' ( "Les Solitudes", . 1869),
. In these works sound themes unrequited love, as well as the conflict between science and religion. Received a refusal from cousin, whom he wanted to marry, S.-P. remained a lifelong bachelor.
In early 1870. poet felt a strong shock when within just a few days to die, his mother, uncle and aunt. In July the same year began the Franco-Prussian War, and C.-P. enters as a volunteer in the militia. The hardships experienced by them during the long siege of Paris by the Prussian army, have further worsened the already poor health of the poet, and by that time, when the siege of the French capital had been withdrawn, in C.-P. paralyzed legs. During treatment, he wrote patriotic poems that were published in book form under the title 'Military experience' ( "Impressions de la guerre", 1870).
The next significant poetry SA-P. - 'Vain tenderness' ( "Les Vaines tendresses", 1875) - is permeated with aching sadness, like 'Solitude', and contains the most frequently included in an anthology of poems of the poet. In the poem of a philosophical nature 'Justice' ( "La Justice", 1878), written in the form of a dialogue under the influence of the poetry of Lucretius, sounds the idea that justice should be sought not in the external world, and in the human soul. In 'Happiness' ( "Le Bonheur", 1888), an epic poem of 4 thousand. lines, it is argued that the happiness of man to reach due to curiosity, science, virtue and sacrifice. Speaking about the impact of humanistic ideals of St. P. in French literature, . American scholar of French origin, Jean Albert Bede wrote, . that 'he takes the poetry out of the darkness, . in which it was plunged into pessimism long positivists, . and teaches, . that the road to happiness lies through suffering, . self-sacrifice and brotherly love '.,
. In 'poetic testament' ( "Le Testament poetique"), a collection of articles, published in 1900, St. P
. in defense of classical French prosody, against the 'free' verse, but also criticized the Symbolists and the decadent.
In 1901, Mr.. S.-P. the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature 'outstanding literary merit, but especially for the high idealism, artistic perfection, as well as the unusual combination of soul and talent, as evidenced by his books'. Nobel Prize AS-P. as a surprise to all those who believed the most likely candidate Leo Tolstoy.
In his welcome speech, SD. VIDC, a member of the Swedish Academy, emphasized that the SA-P. 'differs inquisitive and observant mind that ... imbued with the moral greatness of man ... and from this point of view it is better than most writers personifies what Alfred Nobel was called 'idealist tendencies in the literature'. Due to illness SA-P. award ceremony was not involved, and the diploma was awarded to the winner of the French Ambassador in Sweden.
. Already gravely ill, the poet turns to Christian apologetics Blaise Pascal and wrote a treatise 'The true religion of Pascal' ( "La Vraic Religion selon Pascal", 1905)
. In his latest work 'Psychology of free choice' ( "Psychologie du libre arbitre", 1906), S. P. comes to the conclusion that freedom of choice inherent in nature and, therefore, justified.
S.-P. died September 7, 1907, Mr.. at his villa in Shatne-Malabri near Paris.
The writer, in his time a highly respected both in literary and academic circles, SP-P. now little known, even in France. Selected poems of the poet translated, included in the anthology, but is now literary critics do not pay much attention to his work. S.-P. known as the founder of the literary prize, which he founded for the young French poets of the funds remaining from the Nobel Prize.