JIMENEZ, Juan Ramon (Jimnez Juan Ramon)( Spanish poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1956)
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Biography JIMENEZ, Juan Ramon (Jimnez Juan Ramon)
December 23, 1881, Mr.. - May 29, 1958
Spanish poet Juan RamцЁn Jimц╘nez was born in Mantekon Mogere, a small town in Andalusia, the family banker Victor Jimenez and his wife PurificaciцЁn Mantekon-and-Lopez Pareyo. In the family, but Juan had two more children, as well as the daughter of Victor Jimenez from the first marriage. Despite poor health, a boy in 1891. sent to Cadiz, in the Jesuit college, after which X. studied law at the University of Seville. However X. deals not so much the case law as drawing, reading and writing poetry, especially fond of French and German Romantic poetry, as well as Spanish poetry in high school Rosalia de Castro and Gustavo Becker. His early poems, published in Madrid Revue 'New Life' ( 'Vida nueva'), when he was 17 years old, attracted the attention of several well-known Spanish-speaking poets of the time, t. h. Nicaraguan Ruben Dario, who lived at that time in Spain and compatriot X. Francisco Vilyaspesa, who advised the beginner to the poet to move to Madrid. Having heeded their advice, X. casts casual employment law, moved to Madrid and is actively involved in the creation of two influential modernist magazines - 'Helios' ( 'Helios', 1902) and 'Revival' ( 'Renacimiento', 1906). The earliest collections of poetry, H., 'The souls of violets' ( 'Almas de violeta') and 'Water Lilies' ( 'Ninfeas').
appeared in 1900. Imitative, sentimental, full of adolescent melancholy, these poems nonetheless indicate a certain stylistic sophistication of the poet, of sensuality and gentle lyricism of his early poetry. Images of nature, which are full of early poems, H., will permeate all of his poetry.
The sudden death of his father plunged the poet, who had just returned to Moger, a state of deep depression. H. going for treatment of neurasthenia in a sanatorium in Bordeaux, where he is recovering, but turns into poluotshelnika obsessed with thoughts of death. These thoughts will haunt him all his life. While in the sanatorium, X. wrote little, preferring to read, mostly French symbolists - Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarme.
Back in 1902. Madrid, X. wrote his first mature poem, . included in the collections of 'rhymes' ( 'Rimas', . 1902), . 'The sad tunes' ( 'Arias tristes', . 1903), . 'Distant gardens' ( 'Jardines lejanos', . 1904), . 'Pastoral' ( 'Pastorales', . 1905) and different characteristic of modernist poetry of fin-de-siecle mood of despair,
. But in these verses can hear an original poetic voice of elegant, musical, with a touch of mystery.
From 1905 to 1911. H. again live in Mogere, which were written in verse, included in the collections of 'Net Elegies' ( 'Elejias puras', 1908), 'Spring ballad' ( 'Valadas de primavera', 1910) and 'hollow loneliness' ( 'La soledad sonora' , 1911). With its bizarre imagery and complex dimensions (Alexandrine, for example), these poems remind me of the baroque style.
In 1912, Mr.. H. moved to Madrid student residence, the center of humanitarian culture, where he met an American Zenobia Kamprubi. Together they transform the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore. At the same time, X. produces a collection of 'Labyrinth' ( 'Laberinto', 1913) - poems dedicated to his seven beloved and well-known cycle of white verses 'Platero and I' ( 'Platero y yo', 1914). In the subtext of this kind of lyrical novel, which tells about the poet and his donkey, is, as he wrote in 1970. American literary critic Michael Predmor, the idea of 'death and rebirth as a process of perpetual transformation. "
In 1915, Mr.. goes 'Summer' ( 'Estio'), a book of romantic love poems on the Zenobia Kamprubi. The next year, X. came to her in New York, and they were married. Traveling on the ocean is an important milestone in the creation of X. In his next collection of 'Diary of the poet-newlyweds' ( 'Diario de un poeta recien casado', 1917) reflected this journey; remarkable 'Diary' and the use of free verse - the first time in Spanish poetry. And although the love theme plays a significant role in this book, it permeated the whole theme of the sea, whose constant variability and non-stop symbolize intolerance X. to established poetic structure, but at the same time, the sea awakens the poet longing for permanence.
Over the next 20 years, X. worked as a critic and editor of the Spanish literary journals and in his work tries to express what he called the 'greed eternity'. In his book 'Eternity' ( 'Eternidades' 1918) he renounces his earlier poems and tends to la poesia desnuda - to 'naked', 'pure' poetry. Poetry book 'Eternity' strict and epigrammatichny, alien elegance, beauty, which were typical for early voting.
In subsequent collections of poetry - 'The Stone and the sky' ( 'Piedra y cielo'. 1919) and 'Beauty' ( 'Belleza', 1923) - X. reflects on the relationship between beauty and death, creation and salvation of the soul. In the aesthetic and ethical treatise of those years, the poet declares that there is a connection between morality and beauty. From 1923 to 1936. H. working on the anthology 'All Year Round lyrics New World' ( 'La estacion total con las canciones de la nueva luz'), published only in 1946. and imbued with a keen sense of harmony that prevails in nature. 'Title of the anthology is symbolic - wrote in 1976. in his book 'Modern Spanish Poetry (1898 ... 1963)' American literature to. Cobb. - 'Year Round' - is the poet's desire to link together all seasons, all beginnings and endings, birth and death.
Began in 1936. Spanish Civil War broke creative plans for the poet. Republican government sends him an honorary cultural attache in the United States, and although the poet was going to go there on their own, their separation from Spain, he perceived as a self-imposed exile. During these years X. - The first time in life - has lectured at universities in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the U.S.. When in 1939. Franco becomes the sovereign ruler of Spain, X. his wife decided to stay abroad.
And although in these years X. wrote little, . he continued to search for poetic truth, . reaching almost religious forces in his spiritual testament 'beast from the depths of the soul' ( 'Animal de fondo', . 1949), . poetry collection, . inspired by the sea one more voyage, . this time in Argentina,
. In 1964, Mr.. American scholar Howard Young called this book 'spiritual autobiography of H., a synthesis of his poetic ideals. "
In 1951, Mr.. H. and his wife moved to Puerto Rico, where the poet is engaged in teaching, as well as working on a poetic cycle 'God desires and wishes' ( 'Dios deseado y deseante'), the anticipated continuation of the 'Beast from the depths of the soul'. This collection was not completed, but parts of it therefore included in the 'third poetic anthology' ( 'Tercera antolojia poetica', 1957).
In 1956, the year his wife's death, X. received the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for lyrical poetry, a sample of high spirit and artistic purity in Spanish poetry'. In a speech at the award ceremony a member of the Swedish Academy Hjalmar Gulberg, said: 'In paying tribute to Juan Ramon H., the Swedish Academy thus pays tribute to an entire era of the great Spanish literature'. In a brief response to the letter X. read out in Stockholm, the rector of University of Puerto Rico, said: "The Nobel Prize rightfully belongs to my wife Zenobin. If it were not for her help, not her inspiring part, I could not have worked for over forty years. Now without it I'm lonely and helpless'. H. was unable to recover from the death of his wife and two years later died in Puerto Rico at the age of 76 years.
Reputation H., poet, piously devoted to his art continues to be high. 'X. in Spanish literature is quite a unique place because of the desire to undress, universality and infinity of poetry '- wrote to. Cobb, who believes that in this respect, X. can only be compared with Yeats and Rilke. Like them, notes Howard Young, X. professed 'religion, in which poetry - is the only ritual, and creativity - the only form of worship'.
|melamori for JIMENEZ, Juan Ramon (Jimnez Juan Ramon)
|You do not catch up, others, like a madman in tears primchishsya, but I'm neither here nor around .. You can not stay, my friend. I may come back, and you're neither here nor around.