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John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla)

( Archbishop)

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Biography John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla)
Evening Oct. 14, 1978 over the Sistine Chapel to raise the white column of smoke. The Council of Cardinals elected a new pope. In the yard burned ballots. By tradition, if the candidate receives the required number of votes - two-thirds plus one, the ballot adds special black powder. That autumn, the inhabitants of Rome saw the black smoke eight times. After a couple of hours after the vote, head of the conclave of cardinals went to the balcony of St. Peter with the words "Habemus papam!" ( "New Pope elected!"). Krakow Archbishop Karol Wojtyla, who became Pope John Paul II, made a few timid steps towards applause
For the first time the existence of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope became Slav. With the exception of six German pope, the head of the Holy See were the cardinals of Romance. Said that 58-year-old Pole, was elected by a coalition of cardinals German-speaking countries. His candidature was proposed conclave, Cardinal Franz Konig of Vienna. They allege that he played a crucial role in the unusual choice.
Wojtyla was known as provincial and had no definite program. It is also known that the terms of his personal interests is very wide. Karol Wojtyla, wrote poems and plays, was fond of mountain skiing and swimming. Nothing definite, but even more so no radical changes from the cardinals had not expected. Perhaps that is why John Paul II and was able to recruit the required number of votes. It soon became apparent how wrong the submission of the cardinals of the provincial archbishop.
. Private Life of Pope
. At half-past five in the morning, when the guards of the Vatican yawn at their posts, and the inhabitants of Rome inspect past dreams in a small cell on the third floor of the Apostolic Palace is lit table lamp
. And so every morning. For 22 years. A rare visitor, seen in the cell, it is difficult to believe that here all night vicar of God on earth - so contrasting situation his cell and other luxury rooms Vatican Palace. Hard bed, a small rug, two chairs, a table and some old icons on the whitewashed walls.
House in a small Polish town Vadovichi, in an apartment which had once lived a family Wojtyla, now converted into a museum. Six families gladly agreed to move away to another place so that on the first floor there is a bookstore with the works of Pope, and the second - his personal belongings: paddle canoes young Karol, its downhill skiing, and three of his cassock pontiff. The yellow stone house every year is about 180 thousand. visitors.
Pontiff himself acknowledged that the house in Vadovichi he associated with the most sad memories. Carole tried to escape from loneliness, playing in the school theater. He was going to become an actor or a playwright, at least until the meeting, which is now referred to as a divine blessing. In 1938 the troupe was to speak to Archbishop Adam Sapieha. Wojtyla instructed welcome speech. Following the submission of the Archbishop went to the boy and asked what he was going to do in the future. "Philology or acting profession," - said Karol. "Sorry. It is a pity that you do not want to give your talents of the church, "- said Adam Sapieha.
John Paul II argues that this particular conversation was a turning point in his life. Months later, he felt an irresistible desire to become a monk and went to Archbishop. He three times refused the boy. Only years later - in 1946, Archbishop Adam ordained Karol.
Thus began his journey to the Vatican.
Pope still keeps in touch with old friends. Several times a year, he has lunch with a classmate, Jerzy Kluterom who, as then, calls his school nickname - Lolik. Now the two old men, of course, impossible to play football or go skiing.
"He still remains a mystery to me - recognized Jerzy Kluger .- especially his devotion to the church. It is strange and surprising to see when the pontiff began to pray: in five minutes he seemed to see nothing around. "
. Friends of the pope say he is painfully aware that health does not allow him, as before, swimming and pleasant walks in the Alps
. Previously bodyguards barely keep up with their wards.
Choosing books to read his eclectic: books on philosophy, history or sociology, the works of Dostoevsky and Rilke. Pope speaks eight languages, so reading books in the original.
The evening at 23.00 Pope goes before the altar in the private chapel. Half an hour that he spends in front of the crucifixion - the only time during the day, when John Paul II may be left alone. Then he goes to bed in the morning to submit a schedule drawn up by the personal secretary.
Infallible Pope
Years of the papacy of John Paul II became the most vivid in almost two thousand years of history of the Vatican. Roman Catholic Church methodically shaken by scandals, but even they can not shake the influence of Pope. Hardly anyone would doubt that a return to the Vatican's leading role in world politics was due to someone else, except my father. John Paul II became the catalyst for the collapse of the socialist camp. At home - in Poland - Pope considered the spiritual leader of "Solidarity". During the confrontation the official authorities of the Catholic priests at the request of members of "Solidarity" were transported under its ryasami seditious papers, and the pontiff is only welcomed. The Pope blessed the breakup of Yugoslavia, had done the unthinkable for the head of the Church of the number of foreign visits, and has made the Vatican's representative to the UN. Thanks to the pope the Catholic Church has revised attitude to the Inquisition, the teachings of Darwin, rehabilitated Giordano Bruno, Jan Hus, and Galileo. It is said that now the turn Martin Luther.
In internal church affairs, John Paul II remains a conservative. Pope against abortion and the abolition of celibacy for priests, women priests, gay marriage, and, of course, the abolition of the dogma of infallibility of the head of the Holy See. This is perhaps the only thing his opponents can put the blame Pope. It is believed that the notion of the Cardinals "liberal pope," whom they both are waiting for - a man, a loyal primarily to their own business. In other words, able to turn a blind eye to fraud cardinals, bishops and priests. "Free" - primarily for evaluation of their financial activities.
Pontiff increasingly difficult to manage their subordinates. Even people close to the Pope say that his main trouble, as the "manager", is that John Paul II is ready to engage in administrative work only if absolutely necessary. "The Pope takes Rights in order to solve the problem - says one of his secretaries .- But forget about him, and the problem as soon as the visitor closes the door behind him."
. At the same time, aides dad never tire surprised how quickly he delves into the essence of affairs during the annual discussion of the financial statements
. "But I was a priest and he led the accounting," - explains in such cases the pontiff.
Not so long ago the head of the Congregation of Bishops Germany Karl Lehmann told German radio station Deutschlandfunk the first time publicly called for the pope to resign. Referring to the health and advanced age of the pontiff, he advised the pope to admit that he can not lead the church.
The idea of a voluntary resignation of the Pope after Karl Lehmann was supported by other members of the Conclave. Headers Italian newspapers zapestreli words "conspiracy of cardinals". The next day at St. Peter's Square at the Vatican gathered crowd of many thousands. The participants agreed to ask John Paul II to stay. Pacify the crowd could only pope himself - only after he went to the balcony and promised that "will remain head of the church as much as anything the Lord God". An hour later, Lehmann was dismissed.
But after that speculation about the successor of the papal throne in the living pope did not stop. Precedent in the history has been: Pope Celestine V left the business in connection with the state of health ". However, John Paul II always said that that was what Dante Alighieri put Pope Celestine V in the first circle of hell.
May 18 John Paul II turns 80. In 1992, he removed a malignant tumor. Although the Vatican is still stubbornly denies rumors of progressing dad Parkinson's disease and multiple heart attacks, the pontiff himself does not hide that his health is poor. However, neither of which early retirement can be no question, has consistently stressed the Secretary of John Paul II. "You know how recently pontiff answers questions about zdoroveN - asks the Secretary of journalists .-" You'll never see "

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