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Morton William Thomas Green

( American dentists)

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Biography Morton William Thomas Green
American dentist, the first time (1846) introduced into surgical practice ether anesthesia.
The name of William Thomas Green Morton, perhaps not very well known to many readers. However, he was a remarkable man in terms of history than most celebrities, because he owns most of the credit application of anesthesia in surgery.

. Only a few such discoveries as the use of anesthesia, so highly appreciated by mankind
. Only a few such discoveries made such a profound change in the conditions of its existence. Frightening to imagine the horror of surgery of those times when the patient remained conscious until the doctor sawed his bones. Ability to save people from this pain - is definitely one of the greatest gifts that man has made his fellow men.

Morton was born in 1819 in the town of Charlton, Massachusetts. In his youth he studied at the Baltimore College of dental surgery and in 1842 began his practice. In the period from 1842 to 1843 Morton worked in partnership with Horace Wells. This dentist was a little older and interested in Morton's anesthesia. However, their partnership was not profitable and at the end of 1843 is over.

A year later, Wells began to conduct experiments with nitrous oxide ( "laughing gas") as an anesthetic. He was able to effectively use it in his medical practice in Hartford, Connecticut. Unfortunately, public demonstration of anesthesia, which Wells has made in Boston, failed.

In my practice dentist Morton worked prosthetic teeth. To do this well, needed to remove the roots of old teeth. Such deletions in the days before the invention of anesthesia was very painful, and the need for any methods of anesthesia has become apparent. Morton rightly judged that nitrous oxide is not effective enough for his purposes, and began to explore other substances.
Charles T. Jackson, a recognized physician and scientist, whom Morton knew personally, invited him to use the ether. Analgesics properties of this substance were discovered more than three hundred years ago by Paracelsus, the famous Swiss physicist and alchemist. One or two similar report appeared in print in the first half of the nineteenth century. But neither Jackson nor anyone else from those who have written about the ether never used this substance during surgical operations.

. Mention was made of the ether to Morton as a promising opportunity, and he began to experiment with it - first on animals (including his dog), and then on a
. Finally September 30, 1846 turned up an excellent case for examining broadcasting on the patient. In Morton's study came a man named Eben Frost, who suffers from a terrible toothache and wanted to use anything, just to alleviate the suffering of deleting. The dentist used ether and removed a bad tooth. When Frost came to consciousness, he said that did not feel any pain. Best result it was difficult to expect. Morton waited for success, fame and wealth.

Although the operation took place in front of witnesses and on her the next day told Boston newspapers, the event has attracted wide attention. It has become clear - need a more dramatic demonstration. Morton turned to Dr. John Warren, senior surgeon to the Massachusetts Central Hospital in Boston, to provide him an opportunity for practical demonstrations - a group of doctors - a method of anesthesia. Dr. Warren agreed, and the demonstration was appointed to the hospital. October 16, 1846 before a large audience of doctors and medical students had fallen upon Morton patient Gilbert Abbott ether, and then Dr. Warren removed a tumor on his neck Abbott. Anesthesia fully proved its effectiveness, and the demonstration was an instant success. The demonstration quickly lit in many newspapers has been the main impetus for the widespread use of anesthesia during surgical operations in the coming years.

. A few days after the operation Abbott Morton and Jackson completed an application to patent
. Although the patent was issued to them during the month, as a result was not without some struggles for priority. Approval of Morton, that the main glory of the induction of anesthesia belongs to him, was challenged by a number of people, especially Jackson. Moreover, the hope that the innovation will make him rich, did not materialize. Most doctors and hospitals, which have used anesthesia, did not intend to pay any royalties. The costs of litigation and fighting for the priority soon swallowed up all the money he received for his invention of Morton. Frustrated and exhausted, he died in 1868 in New York. He was not yet forty-nine years.
The use of anesthesia in dentistry and surgery in a large clear. In assessing the overall importance of Morton, however, the most difficult to decide how to divide the glory of the introduction of anesthesia between him and the others working on the problem people. Among these "other" to highlight the main entities: Horace Wells, Charles Jackson and Crawford in. Long, a doctor from Georgia. Given all the facts, it is clear that the contribution of Morton's far more important than others, and I put his name in the list according to merit.

. Indeed, Horace Wells began to use anesthesia in their practice dentist for almost two years before the successful application of Morton ether
. But Wells's anesthesia - nitrous oxide - not produced, and could not make a revolution in surgery. Despite some positive features, nitrous oxide is simply not strong enough tool to be used in a large surgical. (Today, nitrous oxide is used in combination with other drugs, and sometimes in the treatment of teeth.) On the other hand, the ether is an incredibly effective and multilateral terms of chemistry. He actually made a revolution in surgery.

. Nowadays, in most individual cases is to use stronger means of anesthesia than the ether, but nearly a century after its introduction, he was the most common means of anesthesia
. Despite the shortcomings of the ether (it is ignited, usually a side effect of its use is nausea), it remains the multilateral means of anesthesia of all that ever existed. Its easy to transport and apply. But the most important - it combines the security and strength.

In Crawford. Long (born 1815, died in 1878-m) was a doctor from Georgia who used ether in surgical operations as early as 1842, ie four years earlier demonstration Morton. However, he did not publish the results of their work until 1849. By that time, after Morton's demonstration, a useful application of ether in surgery has become well known throughout the medical world. As a result of Long's work has benefited only a handful of patients, and the invention of Morton's life easier for the whole world.
Charles Jackson suggested that Morton used ether u gave useful advice on how to apply it to patients. On the other hand, he never used it in operations and has never - prior to the successful demonstration of Morton's - did not take a single attempt to notify the medical world about what he knew about the air. It was Morton, and not Jackson risked his reputation and decided on a public demonstration of anesthesia. If Gilbert Abbot died on the operating table, it is highly unlikely that Charles T. Jackson would take over responsibility for this demonstration.
So where in this list should be William MortonN can make a good comparison between him and Joseph Lister. Both were doctors, both famous for the introduction of new techniques or procedures, performing the revolution in surgery and obstetrics. Their innovations in retrospect it is obvious. Neither one nor the other does not really been the first who applied the technique or procedure, which has received recognition and acceptance thanks to their efforts. And each of them must share in the honor for its innovation with others. I put Morton higher Lister mainly because the use of anesthesia seems to me more important discovery than the emergence of antiseptic surgery. In addition, some modern antibiotics can replace antiseptics during surgery. No anesthesia is thin or prolonged operation would simply not feasible, and simple operations are often avoided as long as it was already too late.
. Public demonstration of practical application that Morton gave October morning in 1846 - one of the great points of reference in the history of mankind
. Perhaps nothing reflects the achievement of Morton's better than the inscription on his monument:
William T. Morton
The inventor and the discoverer of anesthesia,
who took and destroyed the pain, to which the surgery at all times
was a torment, after which the science of pain control.

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