Thomas Cook (Thomas Cook)( Travel Business Owner)
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Biography Thomas Cook (Thomas Cook)
Thomas Cook, a native of a poor English family, made a genuine discovery. He invented one of the most profitable businesses, which today are getting richer, not only individual firms but also the entire state. He invented tourism. And all that is behind this effort: the route, tickets, hotels, guides, traveler's checks. And it all began prosaically. Cook, being a poor Baptist, declared war on drunks and smokers. That they at the same time he made the first tourists.
Most of the inhabitants of the town of Melbourne, in central England, grew fruit and vegetables. Was engaged in this and John Cook, 22 November 1808, as usual, went out in the field. His mood was perfect: the day his wife gave birth to his son, who decided to call Thomas. But the idyll did not last long: a few years, John died, leaving his wife in such poverty that she could not even put on his grave, very simple headstones. Poverty forced the young widow to remarry. His stepfather, Thomas, James Smithard, was a decent man and treated her stepson as a mother - sent him to school at a monastery (and that, let them made by the pastor, as his maternal grandfather). Paradoxically, it was the first step towards creating the future of the tourism industry.
In February 1826, after his 17 birthday, Thomas Cook was baptized and became a full member of the Baptist Church. He moved from Melbourne in Loughborough and began tirelessly writing articles for the local Baptist journal. This magazine, his mother, Elizabeth Smithard, sold along with vegetables and fruits in his shop. But the energetic and hardworking, Thomas Cook, was not content with writing articles in the magazine and teaching at Sunday school - a thirst for missionary work, which he probably inherited from his grandfather encouraged him to preach in the villages.
. In 1829, Cook wrote in his diary that during the past year as a missionary, worked his way in 2692 miles, of which 2,106 miles - on foot
. Very soon the young preacher won the sympathy of the entire neighborhood. Local residents have become increasingly inviting him for advice on various everyday matters. At the end of that year, Cook has estimated that his work brings him not only moral satisfaction, but also decent, as he then seemed to income - 10 shillings a week. It was the second step towards the establishment of the travel industry, although at the time nobody, including himself, Cook is not aware of this.
In 1830, the Association of the city fondyaptistskoy Loughborough fished to the limit, and Cook lost wages. To earn money, he was forced to do carpentry. Cook managed to remove a small shop in the neighboring town of Loughborough Harboraf. At this time, Thomas moved to a new place is not one - was accompanied by his young wife, the daughter of a farmer Marian Mason, with whom Thomas had met when he taught in Sunday school. Despite the exhausting work in the studio and worries associated with the device in a new place, Cook managed to continue the missionary work. However, for free, but with great moral satisfaction - he preached against alcohol, considering the green dragon is truly the embodiment of the devil.
Audiences Cook draws large: then drank a lot, and it was no accident. Since the XVIII century English law, to resist the import of foreign brandy, encouraged distill alcohol at home. Workers in large industrial cities almost completely drunk almost to death with cheap gin. Typical advertisements in taverns read: "I'm drunk - for a penny, dead drunk - for dvuhpensovik; clean straw - for free". Cook, looking at it, felt a noble anger and did not spare eloquence.
The struggle with alcoholism was the main theme of his dinner speeches on Jan. 1, 1836. He amazed the family, saying: "I agree to refrain from of strong drinks and to combat addiction to alcohol". It was clear that Cook completely obsessed with this topic. At the end of that year he was unanimously elected Secretary of the newly established Harborafe Society of temperance. Began to prosper and workshop Cook, so that the lives of his family grew more prosperous. But the main thing for Cook was that now he could hire assistants and students. So, more broadly, the struggle for a healthy lifestyle. Preaching abstinence to Harborafe and surroundings, Cook turned to his faith many people, and yet it seemed to him that he was not doing enough. And then in November 1839, Cook set for publication of the Monthly Statement of sobriety ", . which, along with lectures and scientific articles about the dangers of alcohol began to publish poems association members (one of the poems called "Please, . not sell drink to my father "),
. A year later, Cook founded the first in the UK magazine for children, which advocates abstinence from alcohol. I still felt that he could do for the suffering souls something more.
In 1840 a railway line was opened, linking Derby to Rugby. After reading the message on this joyful for all residents of central England event, Thomas Cook, suddenly realized what a wonderful invention, as the railroad, should be used to advertise a sober lifestyle. Here it is - more! Cook decided to hire a train to take him to the "Friends of sobriety" from Leicester to Loughborough on the quarterly convention of the Association teetotalers southern counties of central England. Cook depict his plan to the Secretary of Railway Society John Fox, Bell and infected him with their enthusiasm - Bell Cook pre-paid expenses. Two weeks spent on the organization of the event: it was necessary to agree on the cultural program and nutrition in Loughborough, print and distribute posters and tickets. Special invitations were sent out in Nottingham, Derby and other cities.
And then it was born Tourism. It happened in Monday, July 5, 1841. 570 "Friends of sobriety" sank in nine open wagons, very uncomfortable: go was to stand, risking at any moment to feel the vicissitudes of weather. At that time it was a traditional way to travel third class. However, the huge crowd, accompanied by a brass band and armed with flags and banners, was well briefed by Cook, and without fear of anything, demonstrated the willingness to destroy the "monster of drunkenness". At the station in Loughborough "friends" from different cities were united in a great procession, and then proceeded to the city park, where they were organized food (tea and sandwiches with ham), dancing, playing cricket, as well as a three-hour rally. Leicester train back around 11 pm - the whole station was filled with citizens who cheered the fighters with alcoholism.
. Recalling this event, Cook wrote in his diary: "I had the honor to lead the first public railway excursion in the history of England"
. Success did not wait and inspired Cook to new exploits - he organized several trips, worth a shilling for adults and 6 pence for a child (prices available, even for the poor). The next sensation was a special child's journey from Leicester to Derby. It was attended by 3 thousand. Sunday school students.
The success of Cook, in his own opinion, but also to convince customers of its agencies is the fact that Cook personally accompanied the tourists in all trips. The formula is very simple: many of the passengers, for the first time to travel by rail, very nervous, fearing for his health, as well as for the safety of their property. For these tourists, Cook was the father of family, instructing them, consoling and demonstrating their own belief. Rev. Benjamin Armstrong, vicar of Norfolk, testified that during those 14 years, he traveled with the company Cook, he had not even heard of a single unpleasant incident.
Cook was the next target smoking. In November 1841 the Cook family moved to Leicester, where Thomas founded a new publishing house. Specialization - books about healthy lifestyles. At the same time his wife opened a hotel, in which instead of alcoholic beverages sold juice. And everywhere hung signs: "No smoking". The hotel was distributed magazine "The enemy of smoking that offered heavy smokers instead of" rotten tobacco fascinating journey into a society of people who refused to "rotten alcohol."
. The clientele grew, and Cook has signed a contract with the management of railways in the "regular supply of passengers"
. He had invented the slogan "Railways - for millions!" decorated store windows, fences and lampposts. Railways for this grant Kuku discounts, which allows to organize recreational trips for people with the most limited financial capability. Therefore, customers were not hundreds, but thousands. His excursions and trips based on a very efficient principle: "Getting the maximum benefit for the maximum number of people at minimal cost". And another factor that has raised the case Cook: in 1840 the trade unions have annual leave for workers and lower strata of the middle class, who were not ready for such a luxury. They simply did not know what to occupy free time. Cook suggested: during the holidays need to engage in tourism and entertain.
In the summer of 1845 Thomas Cook organized the first purely entertaining journey - without preaching and abstinence. At spetspoezde from Leicester to Liverpool and back. Preparing for this trip, Cook immediately decided to abandon the awkward third-class cars, brought comfort and safety to the rank of priorities. Before you sell tickets to all comers, and Cook himself rode along the route, visit the city, which planned to make stops. And the first time offered travelers travelers checks, which analogs have been known since the time of the Templars - the famous subsequently "Cook checks" to ensure the traveler on the road stolen.
. The main problem with which he faced at this time - to feed and place for the night while more than 700 tourists
. However, preparatory work has not ended with the treaties concluded with the owners of hotels. For his first trip - however, as for all subsequent - Cook published a small guide with a story about all the attractions that tourists can see. The success has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. Even during the advertising campaign, the demand for tickets was so high that we had to hire two trains instead of one.
And then began utterly managerial miracles. In 1846, Cook went to Scotland to develop a route for fans of creativity Walter Scott and Robert Burns. They read and quoted in Britain each. Calculation unmistakable: a fanatical reader will want to "touch hands" magical world of favorite works. He was the first who realized this and put into practice one of the top grossing ideas of the future tourism. After the publication Guide to Scotland Cook in the first train took 350 people there.
Having mastered the routes to Scotland, Ireland, North Wales and the Isle of Man, Cook went on to. He suggested several large landowners central England open their castles and parks of ordinary people for inspection. Workers it will be interesting, thought Cook. First responded Duke Ratlendshirsky, leaving his country for tourists Castle. Behind him stretched out and the other dukes and barons.
After retiring from his head in the problem associated with the organization of tourist attractions, Cook did not stop work and in the field of treatment misguided souls. He still actively writing articles in magazines that preach abstinence, and in 1850 their funds has begun construction of the Palace of sobriety in Leicester. Two years later, architect Justin Medlend Gloucester finished building, which housed the city library, lecture halls, halls for dancing and other activities. The venture proved costly Cook - only the construction cost 3500 pounds. But he did not spare the money to charity.
At the charity has been involved for another action, which also brought large gains. In 1851 in London's Hyde Park was built a huge pavilion for a trade fair. Learning of this, Thomas Cook immediately thought that the exhibition would be of interest not only idle public, traders and industrialists, but also exposed to the direct producers of goods. Cook figured out how to make the poor able to visit the exhibition. Within three months, he traveled to England, . organizing special clubs for workers - making a small weekly fee, . club members receive a ticket to London and back (here, Cook helped his old friend and companion John Ellis, . Director of the railway in central England), . as well as meals and lodging.,
. The grand plan has been widely touted in the newly created Cook magazine "tripper" (which existed before the Second World War)
. Thanks to the efforts of Thomas Cook exhibition was visited by 3 thousand. students from Leicester, Nottingham and Derby. When planning a children's trips to the capital, Cook was particularly accurate - at the station Children and teachers met with a string of omnibuses, vans, and kebov which delivered them directly to Hyde Park and waiting all day to re-take the station. The result of the large: using the Cook visited the exhibition, a total of more than 165 thousand. man.
After London similar exhibition was held in Dublin, and later, in 1855, on the Champs-Elysees. A trip to Paris was the first overseas route of Thomas Cook. And this time he has provided all. Numerous contracts with owners of hotels and vehicles, to ensure tourists calm and comfort. Cook, as usual, published guides, which at this time not only acquainted with the sights of the city, but also gave a lot of practical advice for how to behave in a strange land. One of Cook's advice was addressed to the ladies: "Ladies may, without violating the rules of propriety, enter the best cafes or sit at tables on the street. However, the lady should refrain from visiting the cafe on the north side of the boulevard, between the Grand Opera and the Rue Saint-Denis ". The success was stunning: after the end of the season's private secretary of Napoleon III handed over to Thomas Cook the gratitude of the emperor for his work.
Conquered Paris, Cook has developed a number of routes to other European cities. In 1865 he opened for fellow New World, and for Americans - the motherland of their ancestors. The American branch of the firm headed by Cook's son, John Mason Cook, his father's faithful companion in all endeavors. Agency Thomas Cook and Son "to provide American tourists with the same range of services that the British, including services associated with visits to commercial and industrial exhibitions. One of the first American firm's clients became Mark Twain. He was so delighted with the agency that urged President Grant to use the services of the firm.
In December 1868, Cook and Son "gave the British an opportunity to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The idea of genius - just "finish" the already existing route. New Christians could make a trip to its main holy sites with the comfort and security. 60 people crossed the desert with an impressive caravan: 65 horses were brought tourists, . 87 pack-horses along with a huge number of mules and donkeys were loaded with all the necessary, . pilgrims were accompanied by 77 staff firm, . among whom were armed with carbines guards with guard dogs,
. Pious Christians came to a complete delight from such services. Of the most illustrious names of European literally showered Cook requests to organize similar trips for them. After his return from Palestine, the King of Serbia and several Russian princes to Cook asked the British heir to the crown prince of Wales (future King Edward VII), . wished to send to the Holy Sepulcher of their sons, . Albert and George (the future George V).,
. Next was the British Prime Minister Gladstone
, . and for the rich Indians - for England, . because, . as firmly believed the head of government, . Only tourism can develop friendly relations between the inhabitants of the colony and the metropolis,
. Expectations Gladstone came true - in the Indian office, Cook was besieged by customers. And then quite incredible: in 1878 the Governor-General of India addressed to the Earl of Dufferin Cook to organize for the Muslim population of the region pilgrimage to Mecca. Dufferin knew that, despite the fact that Cook was a Baptist, he was noted for religious tolerance. Indeed, Cook drove to the Holy Land of representatives of many Christian denominations, making no distinction between. Not being able to accompany travelers to the most closed to Christians, Mecca, Cook, this time acting through their agents, and again was successful. Then in the London headquarters of the firm "Cook and Son" was opened by a special department for the pilgrims, which operates to this day.
. When in 1892 the founder of Tourism has died, his fortune was estimated at 2,497 pounds - a good outcome for the man who began working for 6 pence a week
. John Mason Cook, who continued his father's work, died seven years later, leaving behind assets valued at 663 534 pounds. Descendants of the Cook owned company until the late 1920's, when the agency kept its name "Thomas Cook and Son", was to manage an association of entrepreneurs. But this happened in another era, when the monopoly of one family in the tourist business has come a natural end.