Richard I of England (the Lionheart).( The King of England)
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Biography Richard I of England (the Lionheart).
Formation of Richard.
Richard I (English) Lionheart was born in Oxford on Sept. 8, 1157 in the family of Henry II Plantagenet and Eleanor (Alienory) Aquitaine (Gienskoy). Richard was the third son in the family, so it was not seen as a direct heir of his father, and it left a definite imprint on his character and the events of his youth. While his elder brother Henry was crowned in 1170 by the British Crown and declared co-emperor Henry II, Richard in 1172, proclaimed the Duke of Aquitaine and was considered the heir mother Eleanor.
. English King Henry II, father of Richard
. Thereafter, until his coronation future king visited England only twice - at Easter in 1176 and at Christmas in 1184.
. His reign in Aquitaine was held in constant clashes with the local barons who are accustomed to independence
. Soon added to the internal wars of the collision with the father. Early in 1183 Henry II ordered Richard to bring fief oath to his elder brother Henry. Richard refused to do so, citing the fact that it was unheard of innovation. Henry Jr. invaded Aquitaine led a mercenary army, began to ravage the country, but in the summer of that year, suddenly fell ill with fever and died. The death of his elder brother did not put an end to quarrels between father and son. In September, Henry II ordered Richard to pay Aquitaine to his younger brother John (John). Richard refused, and the war continued. Younger brothers Jeffrey and John (John) attacked the Poitou. Richard replied to this invasion of Brittany. Seeing that the force did not achieve, the king ordered to transfer the disputed dukedom mother. At this time, Richard obeyed. But while father and son were reconciled. Trust between them was not. In particular, it seemed suspicious intimacy established between the king and his youngest son John (John). There were rumors that it was his Henry II, contrary to all traditions, wants to make his heir, to the exclusion from the throne of the rebellious eldest sons. This made the relationship between father and Richard even more strained. Henry II was a man tough and autocratic, Richard could have expected from him every dirty trick.
The French king was not slow to take advantage of strife in the English royal house. In 1187, he revealed the secret letter to Richard King of England, where Henry II asked Philip issue for John (John), his sister Alice (already betrothed to Richard above) and submit the same to John of Anjou and the Duchy of Aquitaine.
Younger brother, Richard John, the future King of England John Lackland
Richard felt throughout the danger to themselves. In the family of Plantagenet has come to a head a new gap. But openly against his father Richard made until the autumn of 1188. Contrary to his will, he became reconciled to Bonmulene with the French king and brought him a fief oath. The following year, they captured two of Maine and Touraine. Henry II took against Richard and Philip's war, but without much success. A few months from it eliminated all continental possessions, except for Normandy. Under Lehmann Henry II was nearly taken prisoner by his son. In July 1189 Henry II had to accept humiliating conditions, dictated by his enemies, and died shortly thereafter. In August, Richard arrived in England, September 3, 1189, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. Like his father, spending most of the time is not on the island, and in his continental dominions, he was not going to stay in England for a long time. After the coronation of Richard I have lived in their country only four months, and then again dropped in here for two months in 1194.
Preparation of the Third Crusade.
Having taken power, Richard began to work on the organization of the Third Crusade, vow to take part in which he gave back in 1187. At the call of Pope Clement III to participate in this campaign responded to the three most powerful monarchs - Germanic Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the French king Philip II of France and the English King Richard I.
Germanic Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the river, gleaning the place of fighting
The English king took into account the sad experience of the Second Crusade and insisted that to achieve the Holy Land was elected to the sea route. This saved the Crusaders from the many hardships and unpleasant confrontations with the Byzantine emperor. The campaign began in the spring of 1190, when the mass of the crusaders marched through France and Burgundy to the shores of the Mediterranean. In early July, Richard I of England met in Wesel with the French King Philip Augustus. Kings and troops greeted each other and continued the trip together to the south with joyful songs. From Lyon, the French turned to Genoa, and Richard moved to Marseille.
Sitting here on the ships, the British sailed to the east and 23 September were already in Messina in Sicily. Here, King was arrested by the hostile actions of the local population. Sicilians are very unfriendly attitude towards the English Crusaders, among whom were many Normans. They not only showered them with jeers and insults, but at every opportunity tried to kill unarmed crusaders. Oct. 3 because of the insignificant clashes in the city market has started a real war. Citizens hastily armed, locked the gate and took the place of the towers and walls. In response, the British, not long thinking, stormed. Richard, as he could, trying to keep his people from ruin Christian town. But the next day during the peace talks townspeople suddenly made a daring raid. Then the king became the head of his troops, drove their enemies back to the city, seized the gates and made a severe trial of the vanquished. Until the evening in the city of rampant looting, killings and violence against women. Finally, Richard managed to restore order.
Because of the lateness of the hour to continue the campaign was postponed until next year. This delay of many months of very bad consequences for the relations between the two monarchs. Every now and then between them there were minor clashes, and if the fall of 1190 they arrived in Sicily, intimate friends, then in the spring of next year, left it almost outright enemies. Philip went straight to Syria, and Richard made a forced stop in Cyprus.
Conquest of Richard I of Cyprus.
It so happened that because of the storm of the British ships were washed ashore to the island. Cyprus law Emperor Isaac Komnenos possessed by them under the right shore. But on May 6 in the harbor of Limassol entered the entire fleet of Crusaders. The King asked Isaac to meet, and when he refused, immediately attacked him. Galleys crusaders approached the shore, and began gathering of knights battle. Richard, along with other boldly jumped into the water, and then the first entered on an enemy shore. The battle, however, continued for long - the Greeks did not stand the shock and retreated. The next day the battle resumed already outside Limassol, but was just unfortunate for the Greeks. As before, Richard was ahead of the attackers, and more than all his distinguished valor. They write that he had seized the banner of Isaac, and even blow knocked the spear from the horse of the emperor.
May 12 in the city was conquered with great pomp celebrated the wedding of King Richard with Berengaria of Navarre. Isaac yet realized their mistakes and tied with Richard talks. Conditions of reconciliation were to him very heavy: more than redemption, Isaac had to open up all its crusaders fortress and set to participate in the crusade auxiliaries.
. With all this, Richard has not made an attempt on his authority - the emperor himself gave rise to the fact that events have for him the worst traffic
Richard I in attack
After all the things seemed to be settled, Isaac suddenly fled to Famagusta and accused Richard that he infringed on his life. The enraged king announced Komnina perjurer, disturbers of the peace, and authorized its navy to guard the coast, that he did not run away. The very first thing he conquered Famagusta and then moved to Nicosia. Towards a Tremifussii once the battle. Having gained a third victory, Richard I solemnly entered the capital. Here he briefly was detained disease.
Meanwhile, the Crusaders, led by the King of Jerusalem Guido, took the strongest castles in the mountains of Cyprus. Among other prisoners had been captured by the only daughter of Isaac. Broken all these setbacks, the emperor surrendered to the winners on May 31. The only condition of the deposed monarch had been requested not to burden him with iron chains. But that his fate was not easy, because Richard told him put him in silver chains and sent to a Syrian castles. Thus, as a result of a successful 25-day war, Richard I of England became the owner of a rich and flourishing island. He left half of the inhabitants of their property, and the other half used the education paid to knighthood, which was to assume the defense of the country. By adding in all the towns and castles of their garrisons, June 5, Richard sailed for Syria. Three days later he was already in the Christian camp under the walls of besieged Acre (now - Akko in Israel).
Richard I in Palestine and Syria.
With the arrival of the British siege of the boil with new vigor. In a short time were built the tower, battering rams and catapults. Under protective roofs and dig through the Crusaders approached the fortifications of the enemy. Soon, nearly punched holes everywhere on fire fighting. The situation became hopeless citizens, and 11 July, they entered into negotiations for the surrender of the city with the Christian kings. Muslims should have to promise that the Sultan sent away all the Christian prisoners and return the True Cross. Garrison had a right to return to Saladin, but part of it, including one hundred and noble people, were being held hostage for as long as the Sultan of the Christians did not pay 200 thousand gold. The next day, the Crusaders triumphantly entered the city, which was besieged for two years.
The joy of victory, however, was marred by strong contention that immediately broke out between the marshals of the Crusaders. The dispute arose because of the candidacy of Jerusalem King. Richard thought that they should be Lusignan Guido (Guy Luaziansky). But many Palestinian Christians could not forgive him for the fall of Jerusalem and the preference for the hero of Defense Tire Margrave Conrad, Marquess of Montferrat. Philip Augustus was also entirely on his side. At this feud superimposed another scandal associated with the Austrian flag.
. Egyptian sultan Saladin (Salah ad-Din), the opponent of Richard the Third Crusade
. As can be inferred from the conflicting news about the incident, shortly after the fall of the Austrian Duke Leopold ordered to raise his home above the Austrian standard
. Seeing this flag, Richard flew into a rage and ordered to break it and throw in the dirt. His anger was caused, apparently, the fact that Leopold took a house in the English part of the city, while he was an ally of Philip. After this the king gravely insulted and the German Emperor, drove the detachment of German knights in his army, depriving the first of their property, weapons and horses. But be that as it may, this case aroused the indignation of all the Crusaders, and on it a long time could not forget. In late July, Philip, as well as many French Crusaders left the Holy Land and went back.
This has weakened the forces of the Crusaders, while the most difficult part of the war - for the return of Jerusalem - has not yet started. However, with the departure of Philip were to calm down the internal dissensions among the Christians, as Richard now remained the sole leader crusading army. However, it was clear. Is this a difficult role to him on the shoulder. Many considered him a man's wayward and irrepressible, and he himself first as their orders confirmed this unfavorable opinion of himself. Saladin could not so soon, as it must, to fulfill the conditions that it imposed a surrender of Acre: the release of all prisoners and to pay 200 thousand gold marks. Richard came out of this, in the immense anger, and immediately after the deadline passed vygovorenny Saladin - August 20 - ordered to withdraw and stab at the gates of Acre over 2 thousands of Muslim hostages, for which he earned the nickname "Lion Heart". Of course, after this money was not paid at all, not one prisoner has not received the freedom of Christian. And the True Cross remained in the hands of Muslims.
Three days after the massacre of Acre, Richard was made the head of a large army of crusaders. Richard was determined to advance on Jerusalem. He rallied multilingual army of crusaders (totaling about 50 thousand people) in a single army, and opened the campaign, . which proved to be an outstanding tactician, . and managed, . through personal charisma, . achieve obedience from recalcitrant raznoplemennyh knights and barons,
. Accompanied by a fleet, he slowly moved along the coast of short passages, so as not to tire army. On the flanks continually clashed with the army of Saladin, whose goal was to cut off from the main column lagging or break an army of crusaders for a few isolated units, as was done at Hattin. But the march on Richard Askelon was clearly planned and organized, but because such opportunities Saladin was not. Richard strictly forbade the knights to get involved in fights and all attempts to provoke Saladin column Crusaders break system on the march to anything not brought. In order not to give horse archers close Saladin, Richard set up the columns along the Crossbow.
Saladin tried to block the road. On the coast near Arsuf (Arzufa) ambushed the Egyptian Sultan, and then organized a strong attack on the rear of the column by Richard, to compel the rearguard of the Crusaders into battle. First, Richard has forbidden to resist, and the column persisted march. Then, when the Mamluks very emboldened, and the pressure on the rear guard was unbearable, Richard ordered to blow in advance due to the signal for attack.
Medieval bas-relief depicting Richard I
Well-organized counter-attack had caught anything unsuspecting Muslims by surprise. The battle was over in just a few minutes. Obeying the orders of Richard and overcame the temptation to rush to pursue the shattered enemy. This brilliant victory of the Christians in Arzufa (Arsuf) took place on Sept. 7, 1191, in which Saladin's troops lost 7 thousand people, and the rest fled. Loss of the crusaders in the battle amounted to about 700 people. After this battle, Saladin had never dared to join with Richard in an open battle. Richard was in the thick of the battle and contributed to the success of his spear.
A few days later the Crusaders arrived in the ruined Joppa and stopped here to rest. Saladin took advantage of the delay in order to completely destroy Askelon, which he now had no hope to hold. The news of this has upset all the plans of the Crusaders. Some of them began to recover Joppa, others took the ruins of Rom and Lod. Richard himself has participated in many skirmishes, and often needlessly risked the lives of. At the same time between him and Saladin began a heated negotiation, which, however, did not lead to any results. Winter 1192 King Richard I of England announced a campaign to Jerusalem. However, the Crusaders have come only to Beytnuba. They had to turn back because of the rumors about the strong fortifications around the Holy City. In the end, returned to the original purpose and in a strong a storm - through the storm and rain - moved to Askelonu. This, quite recently flourishing and wealthy city, appeared before the eyes of the crusaders in the form of a deserted heap of stones. Crusaders zealously embarked on its recovery. Richard encouraged workers monetary gifts and to show everyone a good example, he dragged on his shoulders stones. Of the terrible debris with extraordinary rapidity were erected walls, towers and houses. In May, Richard stormed Daruma - a strong fortress to the south of Askelona. After that, it was decided to again move to Jerusalem. But, like the last time the Crusaders arrived just before Beytnuba. Here the army halted for a few weeks. Between the leaders began a campaign heated debate about how useful or not to proceed now to the siege of such a powerful fortress, or better to move to Damascus, or in Egypt. Because of differences march had to be postponed. The Crusaders began to leave Palestine. In August came the news of the attack Saladin at Joppa. With lightning speed, Richard gathered the remains to the military forces at hand, swam in Joppa. In the harbor, ahead of his people, he jumped from the ship into the water to reach the shore without delay. This was not only saved the citadel, but again repulsed the enemy's city. After several days of Saladin tried again with the superior forces to seize and crush a small detachment of the King. Under Joppa, and the city itself there was a battle whose outcome hesitated then the one side or the other. Richard has not only a brave, strong and persistent, and intelligent commander, so that not only hold the position, but also caused the enemy heavy losses.
Victory that allowed to start negotiations. From England came the bad news of the autocratic actions of the younger brother of King John (John Lackland). Richard with restless haste sought home, and this prompted him to make concessions. Under a contract signed in September, Jerusalem remained at the mercy of the Muslims, the Holy Cross has not been issued, prisoners, Christians were given their bitter fate in the hands of Saladin, Askelon must have been quite pregnant workers on both sides. Such an outcome negates all the successes of Richard, but there was nothing.
Return of Richard I of England, and his capture.
After the conclusion of a treaty with Saladin, Richard spent several weeks in Acre and in early October, sailed for home. This trip represented by the great difficulty. In a sea route around Europe, which he obviously wanted to avoid, almost all other roads were closed to him. The Emperor and the people of Germany were largely hostile to Richard. A frank's enemy is the Austrian Duke Leopold. Germanic Emperor Henry VI was an opponent of Richard because of the close relationship with the King of England Guelphs and the Normans, the main enemies of Hohenstaufen. However, despite this, Richard decided to sail up the Adriatic Sea, apparently intending to go through southern Germany in Saxony under the protection of Welf.
Germanic Emperor Henry VI, containing Richard in prison, with his son Conrad
Near the coast between Aquileia and Venice, his ship ran aground. Richard went to the sea with a few escort and in disguise, went through Friaul and Carinthia. Soon, his movement became known Duke Leopold. Many moons Richard were captured, with one servant, he reached the village Erdberga near Vienna. The sleek look of his servants, and foreign money, which he made the purchase, attracted the attention of local residents. December 21, Richard was captured and imprisoned in the castle Dц+renstein.
As soon as the news of the arrest of Richard reached the emperor, he immediately demanded his extradition. Leopold agreed after he promised to pay 50 thousand marks of silver. After that, more than a year had become a prisoner of the English King Henry VI. He bought his freedom only after it brought fief oath to the emperor and promised to pay a ransom of 150 thousand marks of gold. In February 1194, Richard was released in mid-March, landed on the English coast. Supporters of John (John) did not dare to oppose him, and soon lay down their arms. London met his king Lavish. But two months later Richard I left England and sailed to Normandy. In Lizo confronted by the John misconduct which in the absence of his elder brother bordered on outright betrayal. Richard. However, he forgave all crimes.
War of Richard I and Philip II Augustus.
In the absence of King Richard the French king, Philip II had some dominance over the British on the continent. Richard hastened to correct the situation. He took Losch, one of the main fortresses Touraine, possessed Angouleme and forced into submission hardened rebel Earl of Angouleme. The following year, Richard moved to the Berry and worked here so well that led Philip to sign a peace.
English King Richard I (the Lionheart)
The French had to abandon the eastern Normandy, but retained several important castles on the Seine. An agreement could not be durable. In 1198, Richard returned to the border Norman possessions, and then went up to the castle being naughty-Chabrol in the Limousin (Limoges viscountcy) whose owner (Viscount Adhemar of Limoges) has been convicted of a secret connection with the French king. March 26, 1199, after dinner, at dusk, Richard went to the castle without the lat, protected only helmet. During the battle crossbow arrow pierced the king deep in the shoulder, next to the cervical spine. Not submitting the form that he was wounded, Richard rode to his camp. No important body was hurt, but as a result of an unsuccessful operation began septicemia. Aching eleven days, King Richard I of England died April 6, 1199.
Characteristics of Richard I.
Of the novels and films known for his heroic life - crusades, conquests and the like. But in reality the situation was somewhat different. Born into a troubled time, Richard has become cruel and intolerant man. During his reign in the country permanently riots broke out, which he suppressed with incredible cruelty. In the legends, he embodies the ideal image of a medieval knight who performed many well-documented valiant campaigns.
Monument to Richard I
In addition, in the Third Crusade, he has established himself as one of just a few of the Middle Ages brilliant commanders. But according to the chronicler, "the king as often concluded Conditions, . as he took them back, . He constantly changed the decisions already taken or placing new constraints, . only that he gave the word, . as he took it back and when he demanded secrecy, . then he broke it ",
. Saladin's Muslims have the impression that they are dealing with a patient. Also, the situation worsened Richard massacre, organized them, after Saladin had no time to fulfill the conditions set by him. I must say that Saladin, as civilized people refrain from retaliatory massacres and no European hostages killed was not. Ruler Richard was very mediocre, . Because virtually all of the reign spent abroad: from the Crusaders (1190 - 1191 years), . in captivity in Austria (1192 - 1194 years), . and then the long war with the French King Philip II Augustus (1194 - 1199 years), . nearly the whole war was limited exclusively to the siege of the fortress,
. The only major victory for Richard in this war - the capture GISORS near Paris in 1197. Office of England Richard absolutely not involved. In memory of the descendants of Richard remained a fearless warrior, we care about personal glory more than the welfare of their possessions.