Jacob Berzelius Jena( Swedish chemist)
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Biography Jacob Berzelius Jena
(20.VIII 1779 - 7.VIII 1848)
Swedish chemist, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (since 1808), its president in 1810-1818.. Born in Veversunde (southern Sweden). He graduated from the University of Uppsala (1801). In 1802 - 1832 he. worked at the Medico-Surgical Institute in Stockholm (from 1807 g. - Professor). From 1818, Mr.. - The permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Since 1832. devoted himself mainly theoretical work and the compilation of textbooks and review progress of chemistry and physics.
Research covers all the major problems of general chemistry of the first half of XIX century. Experimentally tested and proven (1810 - 1816 gg.) Validity of the laws of constancy of composition and multiple proportions in relation to inorganic oxides and organic compounds Defined (1807 - 1818 gg.) Atomic mass of 45 chemical elements presented the modern symbol of the chemical elements (1814) and the first formulas for chemical compounds (1817 - 1830 gg.),
. Since 1811, Mr.. engaged in the systematic identification of the elemental composition of organic compounds. Relying on the laws of isomorphism, has created a new system of atomic weights and corrected the formula of many compounds. He opened the chemical elements: Cerium (1803, together with a Swedish chemist in. G. Hisingerite; did the same, regardless of their M. G. Klaproth), selenium (1817) and thorium (1828) was the first time (1824 - 1825.) In the free state, silicon, titanium, tantalum and zirconium. Developed (1812 - 1819 gg.) Electrochemical theory of affinity, . on the basis of which a) built a classification of elements - has created a number of elements elektrozaryazhennosti, . electronegative elements called metalloids, . and electropositive - metals and placing between hydrogen, b) developed the idea of dualism, . on the basis to decide on the constitution of chemical compounds, c) constructed a classification of compounds and metals,
. Distributed stoichiometric laws on organic compounds. Created the theory of complex radicals. Developed (1830-1835 gg.) Representations of isomers and polymers. Generalizing (1835), all known results of catalytic studies. Proposed the term 'catalysis' to describe the phenomena of non-stoichiometric intervention 'third bodies' (catalysts) in chemical reactions. Introduced the concept of 'catalytic power', similar to the modern concept of the catalytic activity. Indicated that catalysis plays a major role in the 'laboratory of living organisms'. Launched (1841) idea of allotropes. Posted 'Textbook of Chemistry' (t. 1-5, 5-ed. 1843-1848 gg.). Since 1821. was the annual 'review of the progress of chemistry and physics' (the whole was published 27 volumes).
Foreign Honorary Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1820).