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Niebuhr (Niebuhr), Richard Helmut

( The American Protestant theologian, an expert in the field KHrist. ethics, theology, cultural historian)

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Biography Niebuhr (Niebuhr), Richard Helmut
(1894-1962)-American. Protestant theologian, an expert in the field KHrist. ethics, theology, cultural historian. The younger brother of Reinhold Niebuhr. He graduated from the theological. seminary, and then Washington, University Press, and later studied at Yale University are, where in 1924 he defended his thesis. on philosophy. Has been active in preaching and societies., Instructors. activities: he was the pastor of the Evangelical Church in St. Louis, a professor Idenskoy Seminary, led Elmhastsky College from 1931 until the end of life - Professor. Theology and Christ. theological ethics at Yale. Schools.

H. seeks to find answers to pressing problems of development sovr. civilization, culture and the moral crisis. impoverishment of people in the light not only tradition. theology, but also the experience of all forms of spiritual culture: philosophy, history, psychology, etc..

In early works H. been influenced by the ideas of social evangelism, he was interested in the problem space and the role KHrist. religion in modern. Life of Christ. communica-va. Later he served as a critic 'cultural protestantiz-ma', sought to overcome its extremes in the interpretation of the relationship between culture and religion. Programmatic work 'Christ and Culture' (1951) he considered the opposition of culture is not religion, and Jesus Christ (trend 'anthropologized' rel. consciousness). Thus H. went to traditional Protestant modernist trend of secularization of religion, . desecration, . 'humanizing' the image of Jesus Christ, . k-paradise in social evangelism reached its maximum development, . when Christ is seen as not only the carrier of a new moral consciousness, . but directly,
. members of socio-cultural processes of the 'kingdom of God on Earth'. Position of the Protestant theologian, viewed as a human opponent. Culture is not religion in general, but only Jesus Christ, allowed him to dissociate from the cultural tradition of negativism in Christ. religion, and thus how to make it real, 'uncomplicated' History. layers of the kernel.

H. believed that there were extreme, directly opposite the gender of Christ and culture, and the intermediate solutions to the rye-are reflected in decomp. directions KHrist. theological. and philosophical-theological. thought. He identifies five kulturologich. concepts in Christ. thought: 'Christ against culture' (the concept of 'irreligious culture' in Tertullian, Kierkegaard, K. Bart, . considering the secular culture as the fruit of the sinful acts of man, . that contributes to the isolation of culture and religion, . k-paradise pushed into the sphere of personal life); 'Christ in the culture' (the concept of 'culture panreligioznosti', . characteristic of the 'cultural theologians' A,
. Richlya, Troeltsch, and others. Protestant modernists, to-rye insisted on the continuity and even the fusion together of Christ and Culture. In a crisis of civilization and culture of Christ was assigned the role of social reformer's life that does not comply with DOS. KHrist. concept). Sympathies H. on the side of those options kulturologich. constructions in k-ryh considered decomp. options convergence of religion and culture: 'Christ of culture' (kulturologich. the concept of a Catholic. Theology); 'paradox of Christ and Culture' (this position is close to Luther) and, finally, 'Christ as transformer of culture' (N. connects it with Bl.Avgustinom and Calvin). The reasons for the existence of these kulturologich. concepts H. seen in ODA. cultural-historical. situations that appear in the process of assimilation of Christianity razl.nats. cultures, during which changes accordingly and the presentation of Christ and his role in a human. Arts. Christ was a humane. culture in the sense that he was perceived as part of the social heritage, to-Roe should be retained and transferred to descendants.

Examining popular in the 'theology of crisis' and the idea of desecration of the secularization of culture, characteristic, in particular, for the work Reinhold Niebuhr, H. distinguish 'rel. faith 'and' religion ', which gave him the opportunity to link the crisis processes with religion, immersed in worldly things. He related the history of world culture with the struggle decomp. of rel. faith: 'radical monotheism', 'polytheism' and 'henotheism', to-rye basically have decomp. options disclosure of the role of Christ in a human. communica-ve, interpretation KHrist. ethics and individual responsibility before God. The problem of the existence of the world N. discerned in the problem of synthesis of culture, carried out in view decomp. interests Dep. nations and classes on the basis of a shared vision of peace and common ethics.

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