Egg (Eggan) Frederick Russell( American social anthropologist)
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Biography Egg (Eggan) Frederick Russell
(p. 1906) - Amer. social anthropologist, one of the biggest proponents and popularizers of the structural-functional approach, Radcliffe-Brown's Amer. Anthropology. He studied in Chicago. un-te, in 1931 he attended lectures Radcliffe-Brown, have to-cerned then worked as an assistant. In 1932 participated under the direction of L. White's study Hopi, the materials to-cerned formed the basis of Doctor. dis. (1933). From 1933 he worked in Chicago. un-te. In 30-ies. held a number of field studies (the study of processes of cultural change in northern Philippines, . 1934-35; study of social organization, . and the influence akkulypuratsii on kinship terminology and behavior among relatives in choktavov, . Cheyenne and Arapaho, . 1937),
. During the Second World. War served decomp. positions in state. Services USA. After the war, E. becomes one of the leading figures in the Amer. Social Anthropology. Since 1948 - prof.; In 1948-52 and 1961-63 was led by P / O Social Anthropology Chicago. Zap.
In 1950 published a paper 'Social Organization zap. Pueblo ', which became a landmark in the study of NE-amer. Indians. Using the compare method, E. compared the social organization of Hopi social organization of other tribal groups zap. Pueblo, and concluded that the basis of social organization decomp. tribes zap. Pueblo is the common structural model. Based on comparison zap. Pueblo to the eastern, in the foundation of social organization to-ryh detect other structural features, E. showed that on islands with similar cultures may have different social organization.
In 1953, E. was elected president of Amer. anthropological. Association, in his presidential address 'Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison' (publ. 1954) attempted to compare the upgrade, the method traditionally used by English. school of social anthropology and goes back to Radcliffe-Brown. The purpose of E. achievements was the connection of structural-functional approach with the story. approach to traditional Amer. Cultural Anthropology. In contrast to Radcliffe-Brown, demanding abstinence from history. speculation in the scientific study of the in-, E. considered the use of history. data in the socio-anthropological. research possible and necessary. The condition of the latter should be cross-checking of data used and produced on the basis of their findings. The most effective E. Focused thought to compare the study, K-ryh simultaneously studied and compared several geographically close, historically related and typologically similar to in -. This method of study (called E. 'method of controlled comparisons') allowed to reconstruct the cultural history and reveal inherent patterns.
In 1955, under the editorship of E. issued a collective work 'Social anthropology NE amer. Tribes' - one of the most vliyat. work on social organization and kinship systems of Native North. America. This book includes the study of E. 'Systems of kinship Cheyenne and Arapaho' and his essay 'Social anthropology: methods and results', in to-rum to further develop the method of controlled comparison, and was brilliantly demonstrated by its practical. use the example of study on the Indian-in. It shows how the coincidence of the conclusions obtained on the basis of functional and historical. analysis, significantly increases the reliability and credibility of researchers. results.
In 60-ies. scientific activity E. almost completely converted into the mainstream of teaching and popularization of the structural-functional approach. Administrative talent E. played an important role in the transformation of Chicago. Zap in one of the major centers of anthropological. Science