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Harry Stack Sullivan

( American psychiatrist and psychologist)

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Biography Harry Stack Sullivan
(1892 - 1949) - an American psychiatrist and a psychologist, a representative neofreydizma. Like other followers of this trend has made the modification of the classical sociological psychoanalysis, . put forward the 'theory of interpersonal psychotherapy', . according to Roy, the main determinant of mental development act interpersonal relationships (both real, . and imaginary), . K-ryh personality is formed and manifested,
. Rejecting the Freudian idea of the libido as the predominant energy source of human behavior, C. considered as the first and essential component of the individual system-specific dynamic 'energy patterns', manifested in interpersonal relationships and ensuring the needs. Inconsistencies needs ways to meet them ^, . and 'concern' about their personal safety, . transmitted from mother to child in poor and developing interpersonal situations, . cause, . According to S., . numerous personal 'stress', . Conflicts,
. The main mechanism of protection against them in favor 'system of self' - a special instance of the person prescribing and prohibiting certain patterns of behavior, depending on the specific interpersonal situations. The second component of personality is a system of personification - images of themselves and others, to-rye, once it has arisen, continue to define stereotypical attitude towards themselves and others. The third component of personality - cognitive processes: prototaksis - rambling for ideas, . characteristic of the child; parataxis - fixing causal relationships only between related events over time; syntax - manipulation of symbols, . value to-ryh shared a particular social group,
. On this basis,. identified a number of stages of ontogenetic development of the personality associated with changes in the prevailing interpersonal. The main goal of psychotherapy S. - to develop protective mechanisms of the personality, . ensure its adequate adaptation to the surroundings - achieved through the method put forward by them 'psychiatric interview', . involving an active influence on the psychiatrist interpersonal situation, . arises in contact with the patient.,

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  • In. Yarovitsky. 100 great psychologists, 2004. Sullivan HARRY ECL Harry Stack Sullivan was born February 21, 1892, Mr.. in Norwich, . New York His otetsOTETs (father) While Freud's own work focuses on the father and the Oedipus complex, . almost ..., . Timothy Sullivan, . a farmer, . his matMAT (mother) As psychoanalytic theory is formulated in terms of the, . that anthropologists цґц?цїц?ц? ..., . Ella, . came from a family of lawyers and priests,
    . It burdensome own unequal, in her view, marriage, and raised a son on the legend of her great and powerful ancestors. Harry with the three years he lived on a farm. He was the only child in the only Catholic family among the Protestant community, and therefore was deprived of communication with peers. In 1897. he entered the 'Union Cheek', where he received primary and secondary obrazovanieOBRAZOVANIE - 1. Education, education, body of knowledge obtained special education. 2. Something Obra .... Relationships with classmates he did not exist, but because all my free vremyaVREMYa (time) time and the associated difficult philosophical issues come into contact with psihoanal ... Gary Sullivan dedicated books. In 1908, Mr.. He graduated from high school and receiving a stipend from the state, went to Cornell University. The first few months, he was a good student, but after the second semester of his expelled for academic failure, and two years later, in 1911, Sullivan entered the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery, where he began to study psychiatry. In his student years, he became interested in psychoanalysis, which, after Freud's visit to the U.S. in 1909. has become increasingly popular. Initially, all his ideas were based on this theory. Sal-shower and he took a course of psychoanalytic therapy, . not so much due to the, . that needed him as a patient, . how to satisfy the cognitive interesaINTERES - emotional state, . associated with the implementation of cognitive activity and harakterizuyusch ...,
    . After college, he received a master's degree and began practicing in the hospital Sheppard-Pret. Special vnimanieVNIMANIE - the psychological state of concentration, focus on any object. He gave the selection of personnel working with patients. Largely because of this, he quickly achieved success. In 1923, Mr.. He was a real, full course of didactic psihoanalizaPSIHOANALIZ Psychotherapeutic technique developed by Freud (Freud S.). The underlying concept, bringing together ... by Clara Thompson, with whom he began a close personal and professional relationships. In recent years, work in a hospital Sullivan developed metodMETOD - a way of theoretical studies and practical implementation of something. medical social environment, based on his theory of interpersonal relations, developed in detail later. The essence of the method is that lechenieLEChENIE (Cure; Kur) - the transition from illness to a state zdorovya.Suschestvuet common belief that ... patient should be based on the release of the situation that caused the beginning of schizophrenic processes. ZadachaZADAChA - the purpose of which is achieved by the transformation of the baseline, . which aims Sullivan, . was to try to help the patient regain their freedom to communicate with others on the basis of this method in the hospital, . Office, . where rabotalRABOTA (work) serious activity, . usually contrasted with a game or LOVE,
    . At the dawn of psychoanalysis in ... scientist, was instituted special rules. For example, obschenieOBSchENIE - interaction of two or more subjects, consisting of an exchange between the two messages having Ave.. patients each encouraged, but Sullivan preferred to group one patient communication vozrastaVOZRAST - in psychology - a category denoting a specific quality level of ontogenetic ... and disease in order to neutralize chuvstvoChUVSTVO (Feeling; Geffihl) - psychological function, which informs the subject about the value of those for him ... loneliness and insecurity. While in the hospital there were always students, scientists, researchers, students of various pathologies and methods of their treatment in the department of Sal-Lieven was forbidden to observe the patient without a doctor's permission. This again was done in order not to provoke a sense of insecurity and bespokoystvoBESPOKOYSTVO or anxiety (Anxiety; Angst) - emotional state that arises as a reaction to what else Mr. ... pursuing schizophrenics. In addition to medical practice, Sullivan spent in Sheppard-Pret and extensive clinical trials. Based on this opytaOPYT - the result of empirical sensuous reflection in the human psyche objective reality ... He came to the conclusion that the need to rethink the postulates of classical freydizmaFREYDIZM Using established by Freud (Freud S.) psychoanalytic theory to understand psihosomatiches .... This podhodPODHOD - set of methods, techniques - to impact on something in the conduct of cases in the study of something, and pr. was in tune with ideyamIDEYa - a vision of being, limiting the diversity of human behavior. For example, obsession and ... Thompson, also tuned to the reform of psychoanalysis. Sullivan came to the need to abandon the most odious and grotesque features of the classical Freudian InstinktyINSTINKT, COMPOSITE (instinct, component) According to the classical theory, the sexual instinct adults & qu ... death and destruction, libidoLIBIDO (from the Latin. libido - attraction, . wish, . desire) - libido, . level of which is associated with a ..., . infantile sexual stage, . EdipaKOMPLEKS Oedipus complex - the notion, . introduced in classical psychoanalysis to explain the formation of social, . ..,
    . - All this was rejected by them. In 1930. He moved to New York, where he engaged in private practice, specializing in nevrozeNEVROZ From the standpoint of humane-strukturologii neurosis manifests itself in a fairly integrated and functioning l. ... compulsive disorder. There he met emigrated to America to Horney and E. Fromm, this acquaintance led to a fruitful creative sotrudnichestvoSOTRUDNIChESTVO - in a psychological sense: positive interaction, in which the goals and interests of participants coin .... In 1931, Mr.. published his article 'FaktoryFAKTORY (Factors). Hidden variables, obtained by processing data through factor analysis. environment in the etiology and course of treatment of schizophrenia '. It Sullivan expressed myslMYSL - the basic unit, "molecule" of thinking. In the thoughts expressed in the process of understanding the world, et al.. that the manifestations of schizophrenia have to explain on the basis of human experience, and not hereditary or organic factors, znachenieZNAChENIE - generalized form of reflection of individual experience, was depicted in the schemes of action, concepts, social ... are much smaller. In his opinion, under vliyaniemVLIYaNIE - modified under some influence of the behavior of the subject, his position, facilities. experience, some people may experience changes in behavior and obrazeOBRAZ - a subjective representation of objects of the world, due to both sensually perceived ... It is their thoughts Sullivan understood as a manifestation of schizophrenic psihozaPSIHOZ (Psychosis; Psychose) - an extreme degree of fragmentation lichnosti.Analogichno neurosis, psychotic .... The origins of psychosis, according to Sullivan, lie in the events of real life, were experienced by the patient or his relatives. Paramount importance in this case is dialogue at an early age with his mother or someone replacing mother. If the infant aspects of personality, . formed with, . be distorted, . this could lead to breaches in the subsequent development and formation of pathological personality, . or, . if they are not too pronounced, . to the emergence of neuropathic depending on the mother of boys,
    . Thus there is a complete or partial integratsiyaINTEGRATsIYa - "a process or action that has resulted, integrity, association, connection, ... Maternal belief systems that could later lead to a breach of natural interest to girls. LichnostLIChNOST - relatively stable system of individual behavior, built primarily through the inclusion ... child will not be able to develop itself in the direction of natural geteroseksualnoeT that may adversely affect its relations with surrounding. Such a violation razvitieRAZVITIE (Development; Psychogenese) - Psychoanalysis argues that human behavior can be seen ... entails deterioration of interpersonal relationships in conjunction with this excessive sIYa
    - cm. Reintroduce, Identification. mother may cause schizophrenic psychosis. These ideas about the relationship interpersonal behavior and pathology Sullivan reflected in its sole monograph, published in his lifetime - 'KontseptsiyaKONTsEPTsIYa - 1. The system of beliefs, some understanding of the phenomena, processes and pr. 2. The single defining idea, ... modern psychiatry '(1947). In this case, the main task of psychotherapy is to develop protective mechanisms of the personality, . ensure its adequate prisposobleniePRISPOSOBLENIE - there are two fundamentally different ways of adaptation of organisms to environmental changes: ..,
    . to surrounding. To achieve this, Sullivan developed a method of 'psychiatric intervyuINTERVYu - in psychology - a way to obtain psychosocial information through oral questioning. ... ' Which implies vozdeystvieVOZDEYSTVIE - in psychology - purposeful movement and transfer of information from one party to the interaction ... psychiatrist interpersonal situation arises when a patient. Great attention is paid to the role of the doctor during a communication task of the therapist, according to Sullivan, at the same time was to help the patient understand and express in words the experience. Based on his interpersonal approach, Sullivan proposed the idea that 'self-concept-CONCEPT (self-concept) For centuries, theologians, philosophers and public figures came together in t. ..' is the product of sociological. He singled out the seven stages of development, which is chelovekChELOVEK - being, they embody the highest degree of development of life on Earth, a subject of socio-historical ... lifetime: mladenchestvoMLADENChESTVO and Childhood (Infancy and childhood; Friihe Kindheit und Kindheit) - Jung's ideas on this t. .., . detstvoDETSTVO - term, . represents the initial periods of ontogenesis (from birth to adolescence),
    . , OtrochestvoOTROChESTVO - cm. Adolescence., PeriodPERIOD - 1. period of time, during whose happening something. 2. Stage of social development or motion ..., . pre adolescence, . yunostYuNOST - the period of human development, . corresponding to the transition from adolescence to old self ..., . later period of his youth and zrelostZRELOST (maturity), . state, . organism to which the pronoun comes at the end of the period of development,
    . Longest .... Also in his later years Sullivan has devoted considerable attention to studying the state of anxiety. In his opinion, organizmORGANIZM - 1. A living organism - a living body, a living creature (plant, animal, human). 2. Set forth.. seeks to achieve dynamic consistency, which is udovletvorenieUDOVLETVORENIE (satisfaction) The emotion that accompanies the goal. instinktnoe satisfaction: emotion, resistance ... all needs. At the psychological level individINDIVID ( 'lat. Individuum-indivisible, individual) - 1) individual, separately existing organism or individual ... tends to painless adaptation to the environment. If these two levels, biological and psychological, are combined, then the man produced a sense of high self-esteem. In the case when there is a mismatch own needs and ways to meet them, there is a personal napryazhenieNAPRYaZhENIE (tension) Regarding affects voltage cm. Affect; TENTATIVE PLEASURE. state nalrya ..., anxiety. Sullivan believed that the concern is the force stemming from low self-esteem, which contributes to zhiznZhIZN - 1. The set of phenomena that occur in organisms. From the standpoint of materialism - a special form of existing bedding ... human anxiety and nervousness. The root of all mental illnesses Sullivan saw it in a stew. In connection with this theory have appeared Sullivan is ponyatiePONYaTIE - a symbolic display of the essential properties of objects of the world, highlighted in the results ... as the 'dynamism', which became one of the most important of his scientific activity. At the very origin of the term played rolROL - behavior, which requires a man of social position occupied by. (Dictionary, with. 249) theory of Kurt Lewin school, but his semantic nagruzkaNAGRUZKA him.: Besetzung. - Franz.: Investissement. -English.: Cathexis. - Use.: Catga. - Italy.: Carica or i... significantly different from the past. System dynamic, ie. special designs energy, . manifested in interpersonal relationships and ensuring the needs, . Sullivan regarded as an essential component of personality, Harry Stack Sullivan, died in January 1949 in Paris Along with Karen Horney and Erich Fromm was one of the most visible and famous neofreydistov,
    . Based on teoriyahTEORIYa - an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed phenomena. ... Freud, he subjected them to critical analizuANALIZ (from the Greek. analysis - decomposition, dismemberment) - a split in terms of representations or material ... to develop their own views. It arose because his theory of interpersonal relationships as a source of pathologies of the human psyche. Sullivan theories influenced the development of the views of other psychologists. His theory lichnostiTEORIYa PERSONALITY - According to Mr.. S. Sullivan - the system of representations, in whom a decisive role in the appearance of features ... formed the basis for the work of Carl Rogers, and was preceded by a theory of personality development Erik H. Erikson.
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