Cook, James (James Cook)( great English explorer.)
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Biography Cook, James (James Cook)
1728 - 1799
In 1769, Venus was supposed to pass through the solar disk. To monitor its passage to the Pacific Ocean was equipped expedition of British scientists led by Sir Joseph Banks. The expedition set off in the ship "Endeavor", commanded by James Cook, the first man who had proved that the southern continent is not where he searched.
"Endeavor" rounded Cape Horn, and stood at anchor off the island of Tahiti, where the expedition successfully observed the transit of Venus. It was the unbearable heat, the thermometer showed 48 б° Celsius.
After observation, Cook set out on its first famous voyage, and visit the islands of the Association, then headed to New Zealand, doubled both its islands, to finally determine that it is not part of the continent. Shoreline length of over 3800 kilometers Cook faithfully mapped. Deep inside the island, he did not dare to enter because he had to be a witness cannibalism among the natives of Maori.
Cook, who knew about the existence of New Holland (now Australia), swam to the west. April 19, 1770 he went to the mainland to the east and went along the coast to the north. This bank is now part of the province of New South Wales. April 28 ships anchored in Cook's Botany Bay, so called because of its rich vegetation.
"Endeavor" was walking along the desert coast of Australia, often noticing the haze on the shore, but only occasionally encountering natives. In addition to numerous kangaroos, researchers have seen on Australian shores little interesting. All was well until 10 June, when the "Endeavor" stumbled on a coral reef. Only the strenuous efforts of the crew saved the ship and helped put him in the mouth of a river, where he was placed on the mend from a beach. After repairs Endeavor safely reached the coast of New Guinea.
All went well until the arrival in Batavia, which was a hotbed of dengue fever. During the stay of the disease have died thirty people. From Batavia Endeavor went to England, where he arrived in July 1771.
Cook's first expedition made a valuable contribution to the geography. By the main achievement of this expedition is proof that New Zealand - an island and not part of the southern continent, as well as mapping of its contours and the eastern coast of Australia.
In 1772, Britain sent a second expedition of two ships: the ship, the Resolution, commanded by Cook, and "Adventure" - Furneaux. After rounding the Cape of Good Hope, the ships headed south-east and in January 1773 crossed the Antarctic Circle.
South of the continent was nowhere in sight, but the ice floes and icebergs are much longer than I would like to Cook. In New Zealand, managed to collect large amounts of antiscorbutic herbs. Turning again to the south and then east, Cook finally came to the conclusion that the Great Southern Continent, which said the ancient geographers, there is no.
Having come to this conviction, he left the polar waters, sailed to the Marquesas Islands and then to Tahiti. Describing an arc around the southern ocean, "the Resolution" went to the islands of Espiritu Santo, which Cook renamed New Hebrides. Then, he moved to the south-west and opened a large island, which he called New Caledonia.
Back back by New Zealand and Cape Horn, calling at the Cape of Good Hope. During this expedition, which lasted three years, Cook crossed the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans in the polar latitudes, and again made several discoveries. The route the second expedition was equal 84 000 kilometers, which is more than twice the length of the earth's equator.
After the second expedition, Cook was promoted to captain rank 1, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
The following year, Cook organized a third expedition to find a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
At this time, he commanded one of two ships: "The Resolution" and "Discovery". The ships were on the route: the Cape of Good Hope and Tasmania. New Zealand, Tonga and the island's Association. Sailing then to the north, Cook found once again discovered by the Spaniards and then forgotten the Hawaiian Islands, which he renamed Sandwich. Then Cook, in search of the Northwest Passage was along the western coast of America to its north-western tip - Barrow. Along the way he approached the shores of the Chukchi Peninsula.
Passage into the Atlantic Cook could not be found, and the ships came back, first to the mouth of the Yukon, and then to Hawaii.
Here, the natives began to steal from the ships all small items, theft of all sizes have increased, and reached the point that the boat was pulled from the "Discovery". Cook sent several detachments of sailors in search of the missing boat, and he came to explain to the local leader Torreoboo. The conflict was ready to be resolved peacefully, when the news came that the sailors killed some of the local potentates. The natives attacked the British, and Captain Cook was killed in battle.
WWC Team on the basis of chapter "James Cook" book "100 great explorers" - M.: Veche, 1999.