WEBER Carl Maria von( German composer, conductor, an excellent pianist.)
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Biography WEBER Carl Maria von
1786 - 1826
The German composer, conductor, an excellent pianist. He also was a music critic. Posted critical article: 'musical and dramatic notes', an autobiographical novel (unfinished) 'musician's life', reviews. The importance of creativity in Western music of Weber - founder of the German national opera (romantic). In spite of the Mozart opera (zingshpili) and "Fidelio" by Beethoven, in Germany, in fact, there was no national opera school, dominated Italian opera. Weber spoke against it in the reviews. The first German romantic opera written Hoffman - 'Ondine'.
. Major works: 10 operas, . music for productions of 'Turandot' and 'Protsioza', . 2 symphony, . overture, . 2 piano concerto, . 'Konzertstuck' for piano and orchestra, . Clarinet, . Bassoon, . horn, . chamber ensembles, . 4 sonatas for piano, . 'Invitation to the Dance', . variation, . Romances, . play, . songs, . choral works.,
. Life Path
. Since childhood Weber was in the atmosphere of the theater, t
. to. his father was anterprintrom (organizer and conductor) in the troupe. Because of the constant crossing was not continuing education, . but in the late 90's, he begins to study with Michael Haydn (younger brother of Joseph Haydn), and wrote the first works and opera: opera 'Forest girl', . Singspiel 'Peter Shmol and his neighbors'.,
. In 14 years he performed as a pianist, but in 17 years as a conductor
. In 1803, deals with the Abbe Vogler, who instilled in Weber's interest in folk music.
1804-1817 gg. - The establishment of the opera art. Weber worked at various courts and theaters (Kapellmeister at the opera house Breslau, served several years private secretary to the Duke of Wurttemberg in Stuttgart, led the opera house in Prague (1813-1816 gg.). In Darmstadt, he met with other composers, and formed 'Harmonious Society', among whom was the composer Meyerbeer. Weber interest of German literature and German music (song). He began writing critical articles. Emerging opera 'Rц╪bezahl', 'Silvana', 'Abu Hassan'.
1817-1826 gg. - Dresden mature period. At this time, Weber worked as a conductor and director of opera theater. There is a struggle for national opera (German), against the Italian. This period of creative flowering. During this period, Weber makes his best works: a sonata, 'Invitation to the Dance' (raises the genre of artistic level). Anticipates the waltzes of Chopin, wrote 'Konzertstuck' for piano and orchestra - program music, a virtuoso concert pieces.
1821. - Opera 'The Magic hands'. With great success it was staged in Berlin. This - the birth of the German National Opera. Genre - Romantic Singspiel.
1823 g. - Opera 'Evrianta'. Written for Vienna. A new type of opera - most romantic chivalrous opera without spoken dialogue. The plot - a medieval legend (13 century). This opera has received great recognition. It foreshadows Wagner's operas ( 'Lohengrin').
1826. - The opera 'Oberon'. Staged in London. Fairy Tale Opera. By genre - Singspiel. It is combined fiction with reality.
Opera was held in Berlin with great success. This - the first German romantic opera. Genre - Romantic Singspiel. Libretto - Kinda. According to popular legend about the black hunter (of books Apel 'Book of horror stories').
The structure of the opera: 3 steps: 1-e action - the exposition of the drama; 2-e action - the development, 3rd act - the climax and the denouement. In the 1st and 3-em action is the mass scenes. In the 2 nd step - Fiction. It (2-e effect) in contrast with 1 and 3 actions. In the drama seen 3 of the plan:
1 plan - people's everyday crowd scenes. For them, Weber uses the genre, dances, marches, swing Bohemian theme, intonation 'gold of the' Horns. Clear and simple instrumentation, harmony is very simple, straightforward melodies, which are close to popular themes. He rewrote the local bohemian flavor and made poetry of his.
1 action - choirs and Lц╓ndler, a march of peasants, the song of the people.
3 steps - chorus girl friends, the chorus of hunters.
2, the plan - linked to fantasy - final 2-second steps. Music contrasts sharply with the 1 st and 3 rd action. It is - horror fiction. Enormous role played by the orchestra. Weber uses a completely different means of expression than in the 1-m plan. Final 2-nd of - the scene in 'Wolf Valley'. Each shot is accompanied by a fantastic new vision: a storm, a wild hunt (barking dogs), a wild storm, battle, etc.. Minor Uses. The tonal plan: c-moll, fis-moll, c-moll. Barking dogs - chords with horns and bassoons. Whirlwind - bassoon and low strings with an awkward topic in the bass. Weber uses woodwinds in uncharacteristic registers: clarinet - in a low, flute - or very low, Ljubo very high, shrill. Uses the same trombones, horns and timpani. Orchestral findings of Weber's influence on the works of other composers - Berlioz, Mussorgsky ( "Night on Bald Mountain ').
3 Plan - linked to individual heroes:
Characteristics of Max - a typical romantic hero. Aria (I act) - weak-willed character. Agatha - more purposeful nature. She is devoted to big aria - a portrait of Act II of several sections: entry recitative, 1 st section - the sublime nature of prayer. The last section - a quick, active, very optimistic music, but - the leitmotif of Agatha, which sounds in the overture and completes the whole opera. There are other motifs. One of them - the leitmotif Samelya - the leitmotif of evil forces. There is also Leith-tones. We Agatha - clarinet, y Samelya - flute in the low register. Anticipate the work of Wagner's leitmotifs.