Alexander I (prince of Bulgaria)( Prince of Bulgaria)
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Biography Alexander I (prince of Bulgaria)
Bulgarian Prince, formerly the Prince of Battenberg (1857 - 1893), the second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and morganatic his wife, the Countess Julia Goeke, in 1858 received the title Princess of Battenberg, a nephew of Tsar Alexander II. After military school in Dresden, Germany was in military service; in 1877 - 78 he took part in the march of the Russian army against Turkey, and then again went to the Wehrmacht. Russia has put forward his candidacy for the Bulgarian throne, and April 17, 1879 Turnovo Grand National Assembly unanimously elected him prince (the number everywhere in the old style, adopted in Bulgaria).
June 23, 1879 he arrived in Constantinople, and received a firman from the sultan of the principality, three days later he Tarnovo sworn allegiance to the Bulgarian Constitution and joined the administration of the country. Russian diplomacy was confident that her protege A., associated with the Russian imperial house of kinship will from Bulgaria Russian outpost in the Balkans. From the very first steps A., . dreaming of a strong government, . felt the shyness of the Bulgarian constitution, the first elections gave a radical of the People's Assembly, . whom he could not get along, . and he began to seek, if not to absolutism, . then, . at least, . to strengthen their power at the expense of the national assembly,
. To get support from Russia, he was in February 1880 arrived in St. Petersburg. Emperor Alexander II had approved the plans for Alexander, and their implementation was delayed
. After the death of Alexander II A., . with the assistance of the Russian general Ernrota, . made, . April 27, 1881, . coup: he gave a sudden resignation of the Ministry of Karavelov, . authorized the formation of the Ministry Ernrotu, . dissolved the national assembly and announced in the proclamation, . that refuses to crown, . If he will not be given extraordinary powers to restore order in the country,
. Collected during the strong and extremely rough police pressure emergency meeting gave a. emergency powers for 7 years. After that universal suffrage has been replaced by the wealthy, created a second chamber, a great number of political processes, the most prominent public figures - Tsankov, Karavelov, Slaveikov etc.. - Part of the interned (exiled by administrative order), part of the forced emigration.
In 1882 A. formed a new ministry was headed by a sent from Russia, General Sobolev, and which has entered the Russian general Kaulbars. And Soon. felt, however, that the dependence on Russian generals for him even harder than the dependence on public gatherings. In 1883 he gave a resignation Sobolev and restored the constitution. Since then begins a period of strained, and then very hostile relations with Russia. A., in greater or lesser agreement with the liberal (Tsankov) and even radical (Karavelov) parties, working for the liberation of Bulgaria from Russian influence.
September 6, 1885 coup was carried out in Eastern Rumelia, and her Governor-General Krestovich arrested and overthrown, and the interim government has called a. take power in their hands. Participation A. this revolution can not be documented proven, but when he committed but. immediately moved to another country nezamirennuyu and proclaimed its connection with Bulgaria, together with the, . He hastened to declare, . that the coup was not directed against the Turkish government, and that the dependence of both Bulgaria, . and Eastern Rumelia from Turkey remains fully,
. This skillful diplomatic course, he warned the seemingly inevitable war with Turkey and has received approval from Turkey at the rank of governor-general of Eastern Rumelia. Emperor Alexander III, did not approve of this act, struck a. from the lists of the Russian army. Connection with Eastern Rumelia led war on Bulgaria and Serbia, in which A. personally involved.
August 9, 1886 he was arrested in his palace a handful of conspirators, taken to Russia, Mr.. Reni, and handed over to Russian authorities, who released him to freedom. Encouraged by the success of counter-revolution in his favor, A. returned 17 August in Bulgaria and again took power in their hands. Participation of the Russian Consul in his solemn meeting led him to believe that Russia's attitude toward him changed, and he appealed to the emperor with a telegram, in which he "handed over their crown the monarch of Russia, who had given it to him". Answer Alexander III was so hostile that A.
26 August abdicated and left for Darmstadt. His real estate in Bulgaria, he sold the state for 2 1 / 2 million francs. In 1888, Emperor Frederick III, Germanic, and in particular the Empress were willing to marry for a. his daughter, Victoria. But the marriage did not take place, as Bismarck made him a political issue and objected to it on the grounds that the marriage of the daughter of the emperor with a hostile Russia. could damage relations between Germany and Russia. In 1889, a. married to opera singer Loyzinger (Loisinger) and adopted the name Count Gartenau, under which he lived in recent years. Since the government Stambuloff in Bulgaria tried to represent the rule of Prince Ferdinand legitimate continuation of the rule A. and used every opportunity to fan the merits and value of A., then in 1891 the Bulgarian People's Assembly voted the A. lifetime annuity of 50 000 francs.
November 17, 1893 A. died in Graz. His body was brought to Sofia, and solemnly buried in the Bulgarian state expense. In addition to general works on the history of Bulgaria, cm. Drandar, "Le prince A. de Battenberg en Boulgarie "(AP, 1884); Koch," Furst Alexander von Bulgarien "(Darmstadt, 1887); Golowine," Furst A. von Bulgarien "(Vienna, 1895); Glaser," Furst A. von Bulgaien "(Bensheim, 1901); Kleber," Furst A. von Bulgarien "(Dresden, 1886). V. In-in.