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Vladimir Svyatoslavich (ancient Vladimer)

( Grand Prince of Kiev)

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Biography Vladimir Svyatoslavich (ancient Vladimer)
photo Vladimir Svyatoslavich (ancient Vladimer)
Basil in baptism, holy and Sts, son of Svyatoslav Igorevich and Malusha, housekeeper Princess Olga. The traditional history of the reign of Vladimir, based on the "Tale of Bygone Years" (the beginning of the XII century.) Is as follows: Svyatoslav, the final departure of the Danube, has divided his principality into three parts, Vladimir, at the request of Novgorod, he planted in Novgorod (970). After the death of Svyatoslav (972) there was a feud between Yaropolk and Oleg Svyatoslavich; last fall (977). Fearing the same fate, Vladimir fled to Varangians overseas, two years later he returned, took Novgorod, declared war Yaropolk and prisvatalsya to Rogneda, daughter of the Prince of Polotsk. Refusal Rogneda led to the capture of Polotsk, the death of Prince Rogvolod and forcibly seize Rogneda in the wife of Vladimir. When Yaropolk died, Vladimir voknyazhilsya in Kiev (980). Varyags who helped Vladimir, demanded tribute, but Vladimir rid of them, sent them a part of towns, often sent away to Byzantium. In 981 g. Vladimir wins Cherven city, 982 g. goes on Vyatichi, in 983 g. - In Yatvingians, and then die in Kiev Vikings-Christians, a father and son (the father refused to give his son as a sacrifice to the gods) in 984 g. - March to Radimichi, in 985 g. - Campaign against the Bulgarians do not know what - the Volga and the Danube. In 986 g. Vladimir came to the ambassadors missionaries: Bulgarian-Mohammedans, hozarskie Jews, "the Germans" from the pope and the Greek "philosopher". Only the latter is planted in the soul of Vladimir seeds of Christianity. On the advice of the elders and the boyars, Vladimir sent an embassy to test the faith, was the best Greek. The boyars and the elders, guided by the example of Olga, advised Vladimir baptized (987). Warred against Vladimir Korsun (Chersonese in the Crimea), besieged and took the city. On the demand at the hands of emperors of their sister, Princess Anne, they said Vladimir agreed, under the condition of baptism. Upon arrival the princess, Vladimir was baptized in Korsun, then destroyed the idols in Kiev and baptized Kiev (988). After the baptism of Vladimir made a few more trips, successfully fought off Pechenegs, built against them, the city. As a Christian, Vladimir cared about education (he attributed to the base of the first school) and on the construction of churches, having granted one of them tithe (996). Vladimir is not executed the "bandits", "fear of sin". But the bishops "have advised, and Vladimir fixed penalty soon, however, again replaced viroy. Vladimir sent to areas of the sons. One of them, Yaroslav of Novgorod, rebelled. Vladimir was preparing to march on his son, but fell ill and died July 15, 1015, Mr.. How Vladimir before baptism was a staunch pagan (updated cult, human sacrifice) and zhenolyubtsem (5 wives, 800 concubines), so after the baptism, he is a model of Prince Christian. His generosity impacted in the richest feasts and lavish alms. That tradition, . academic development and the criticism which has been reduced to an examination of news chronicle on the merits, . to compare them with the news of other Russian sources, . evidence of aliens (the Byzantines, , . one hostage, . Western Europeans, . Icelandic saga), . Data epics; were clarified and the sources of the chronicle tradition,
. The results of this work, in general, the following. Vladimir came to the Kiev throne in 978, not 980 g. Proceedings of the Varangian and Rogneda doubtful; sacrifice the child Varangian refers to the first months of the reign of Vladimir, it is, perhaps, is the invention of the chronicler (Kostomarova opinion not shared by most scientists). Legend of the ladies' man, Vladimir, . as a later interpolation in the ancient chronicle (chess), . not confirmed by other news and not plausible, it is made by analogy with the biblical story of Solomon and shadowing in contrast with the subsequent Christian life of Vladimir (Kostomarov, . Golubinskii),
. This update of the pagan cult of other scientists (Solovyov, Zavitnevich) see the result of reaction against the pagan Christian trends and tolerance times Yaropolk. Others recognize in this news exaggeration. The main topic of scientific research is the baptism of Rus. The news of the arrival of the embassy is, apparently, a separate legend, includes, Shakhmatov, in the ancient chronicle. Most content of the speeches of ambassadors and recognizes the invention of the author Vladimir legends; bare fact comes after one rejected as implausible (Kostomarov), . other recognized possible (Golubinskii, . Soloviev) and put in contact with the political situation in Eastern Europe and the Near East (Zavitnevich),
. This "philosopher" some consider the missionary translation of the speech, the majority - the later compilation. The news of the test of faith, subjected to withering criticism on the merits (Golubinskii, Kostomarov), is a later interpolation in the oldest set (chess). The author of it could be a Greek. Surviving Greek news of the arrival of ambassadors from Russia to Constantinople for the test of faith, referred to by Karamzin, is a late fabrication (Golubinskii). According to the ancient vaults (in the reconstruction Shakhmatova), Vladimir was baptized in Kiev after the sermon philosopher (987). This view is known and the originator "Tale of Bygone Years", which is preferred so-called "Korsun legend," narrate the baptism of Vladimir Korsun, and introduced it into "The Story". In favor of the baptism of Vladimir is in Kiev and in 987 g. says a lot. Hiking to Korsun long remained unexplained. Kostomarov rejected it, but unfounded. Explanation of Karamzin - Vladimir was "to win the faith" - is bankrupt; little better explanation Golubinsky - Vladimir went on a campaign to get the hierarchy and civilize Russia. The explanation seems to give the Greek case. At the end of 987 g. in Byzantium, rebelled against Emperor commander Varda Fock, almost mastered the throne. Emperors had forged an alliance with Vladimir on the condition of sending Vladimir subsidiary companies, and granting him marry the princess Anne, after the adoption of Christianity. This is the last condition (the adoption of Christianity) is as though the only major contradiction of the hypothesis of Vladimir's baptism as early as 987 g. One might think that the siege and capture of Korsun was caused by failure to fulfill the condition of the emperors marriage of Vladimir and Anna, and the most applicable to the siege of 989 g. This Baron Rosen considers baptism to the time after the capture of Korsun, and Vasilevskij - to 987 g. Illumination causes transition Vladimir to Christianity caused controversy among scientists. Poor explanation of Metropolitan Filaret - penitent mood fratricides and profligate Vladimir. Insufficient explanation Soloviev - poverty and emptiness of paganism. Among reasons, . apparently, . had a close relationship of Russia and Byzantium, . the gradual penetration of Christianity in the Russian society, . Education in Kiev, the influential Christian community, personally Vladimir influenced childhood impressions (Princess Olga), . maybe, . communication with the wives of Christians (Golubinskii),
. Were married with the princess, brought from Vladimir Korsun in Kiev priests, books, utensils. Baptism Kiev occurred in 989 or 990 g., perhaps, the external environment as described in "The Tale". Undoubtedly, the new faith met with some resistance, about which sources are silent. Only about Novgorod we know from the so-called chronicle of Jehoiakim, that there's not been without an armed struggle. Christianity spread in Russia under Vladimir slowly. Were there with him Russian Metropolitans - the unresolved question. Other news about the time of Vladimir the most part reliable, though not devoid of legendary details and created under the influence of folk tales and songs. The era of Vladimir was a time of great cultural development of Kievan Rus, but traces of it in the sources are scarce. Personality of Vladimir far not clear. Some consider him a genius, Peter the Great of ancient Russia, put it even higher than Peter's, while others deny it features the genius. Vladimir sons: Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Jaroslaw, Vsevolod, Mstislav, Stanislav, Svyatoslav, Boris, Gleb, Pozvizd, Sudislav; twelfth, Svyatopolk, was actually the son of Yaropolk. - Sources. "Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles", mainly volumes I - III and VIII. Other sources published most accessible Golubinskii ( "History of the Russian Church", I, 1). Important letter from Western missionary Brunova Hilferding published in Russian Conversation "(1856, N 1). Literature enormous. A good bibliography is not. See. AA. Chess "Rozyskaniya of the ancient Russian Chronicles" (St. Petersburg, 1908; here printed hypothetical ancient chronicle in 1039, Mr.. as amended in 1073), his "Korsun legend" ( "Collection in honor Lamansky, t. II); Zavitnevich Vladimir holy as a politician "(" Vladimir collection "; Kiev, 1888); Kostomarov" Legends of the original Russian Chronicles "(" Monographs ", t. XIII); Vasilevskij "Proceedings", publication of the Academy of Sciences, Volume I - II; Bar. Rosen, "The Emperor Basil Bulgaroctonus". The latest work of NK. Nicholas and ppm. Priselkova not yet published. Alexis Jelaд?iд?.

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Vladimir Svyatoslavich (ancient Vladimer), photo, biography Vladimir Svyatoslavich (ancient Vladimer)  Grand Prince of Kiev, photo, biography
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