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Vyazemskij Pyotr Andreyevich

( poet and critic)

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Biography Vyazemskij Pyotr Andreyevich
Born in Moscow on July 12, 1792, in a rich and noble family, spent his childhood in an intelligent and educated environment from an early age began to meet with writers and literary interests to live. After passing through the hands of a number of foreign-tutors, . was given in St. Petersburg Jesuit boarding, . where, . he said, . found the "enlightened, . attentive and conscientious teachers; then briefly was in boarding school at the St. Petersburg Pedagogical Institute,
. Returning to Moscow, took home lessons from university professors. State Service began in a Moscow landmark office, then went to the College of Foreign Affairs. In 1812, Mr.. joined the Moscow militia and was at Miloradovich; distinguished himself at Borodino, pronouncing of fire wounded General. After leaving military service, he spent nearly three years in the Warsaw office NN. Novosiltsev, . in the atmosphere of liberalism and constitutional expectations, went to Alexander I, compiled project Novosiltsev Russian constitution and participated in the drafting of the note on the release of the peasants, . GIVEN emperor small circle of liberal activists (Prince Menshikov, . Count Vorontsov, etc.),
. Young Liberals came under police surveillance, and soon out of favor and had to leave Warsaw. Settled in Moscow, he gave himself up to literature. Vyazemskij began to write poetry in childhood and in the press made its debut in 1808. in the Journal of Europe's "Message to * * * in the village", attracted the attention of the "Message to Zhukovsky," poems on the death of Kutuzov and a song on the taking of Paris ", was a founding and active members of the literary society Arzamas. Poetry Viazemsky areas mainly of didactic and satirical and reduced to a shallow, not idealistic, but the label and witty criticism of literary and social mores. Such, for example, the famous "Russian God" (1827), "Yes, it would not be so" (1822), "Seven Fridays of the week" (1826), "Station" (1828), "Old Generation" (1841). Verse Vyazemsky too heavy, but sometimes not without a certain grace, it can feel the tension inherent in the skillful and conscientious dilettantism. Much more importance was Vyazemskij as a critic, especially in the twenties. Speaking at a literary career as a pioneer and innovator in the camp, Vyazemsky tied struggle with the old literary tradition. Participation in the literary war "Arzamas" with "Conversations fans of the Russian word" because of the comedy Prince AA. Shakhovsky "Lipetsk water" nominated Viazemsky in the first ranks young literature. At the same time he published critical articles about Derzhavin and Ozerov. "In those articles, . - Said Belinsky, . - Vyazemsky is a critic in the spirit of his time, . but without pedantry, . judged free, . not as a scientist, . but as a simple man with a mind, . taste and education, . expounds his thoughts with a fascinating fervor and eloquence, . elegant language ",
. In these articles Vyazemskij rose above the "spirit of the time, showed a historical point of view and was one of the true precursor of the Belinsky. Similarly, a champion of new ideas was Vyazemskij to a young Russian romanticism ( "The conversation between the publisher and a classic," the preface to the first edition of "The Fountain of Bakhchisarai Pushkin, 1824). As critic Vyazemskij involved (1825 - 1928) in Moscow Telegraph N.A. Field, where he, as he puts it, "stood on the wall, fighting, firing with all guns, the guerrillas, prance". Criticism Vyazemskij viewed as a science. "It is possible, - he said - to be born a poet, orator, but can not be born a critic. Criticism - science, it should be studied. And the wild nations have their own song and his eloquence, but the critical research they did not find. In science and multilingual reading, the critic needs more flavor. This property and the innate, generic, and acquired the taste sharpens and improves the teaching, by comparison, experience,. Since 1830, Mr.. until the mid 40-ies Vyazemskij engaged biography Fonvizin (a separate edition, 1848). Gogol wrote about this book, . to this day not lost its significance, . that it "could be heard at the same time, policy, . philosopher, . thin appraiser and critic, . positive public man, and even experienced vedatel practical side of life, . - Word, . all those qualities, . which should encompass the deep historian at the highest value ",
. Dreaming of a major public role, Vyazemskij in the thirties, returned to public service, which was admitted because of his old liberal reputation, not without obstacles. His little satisfied service for the Ministry of Finance, which he had to deal with, first as an official Department of Foreign Trade, then its vice-director, manager of the bank loan and, finally, a member of the Board of the Minister. In 1855, Mr.. he published in Lausanne book "Lettres d'un veteran russe de l'annee 1812 sur la question d'Orient publiees par P. d'Ostafiewo ", in defense of Russia against her hostile European public opinion. In the same year Vyazemskij was appointed Deputy Minister of Education and held that position for about three years, zaveduya, among other things, the affairs of the press. Although from the old liberalism, his long nothing left (in 1848 Vyazemskij drawn the attention of an already too-watchful government at, . that in our literature, "every word is ambages", . and magazines are full of equivocation and hints, . transparent for clever readers), . but now, . obeying the new influences, . Vyazemskij defended the literature, . argued, . that "all too many suspicious and cunning deliberate harassment of censorship did not serve to change in the direction of thoughts, . concepts and compassion ", . and stood for the strict settlement of the relations of the Government to print, . to protect it from accidental discretion and arbitrariness,
. In 1858, Mr.. Vyazemskij resigned and has since lived abroad more. November 10, 1878, Mr.. He died in Baden-Baden. In her long lifetime Vyazemskij not always able to stay with kicks and with the end of the thirties became the innovator of the retrograde. Critical attitude to Karamzin seemed public danger; in 1836, Mr.. He presented the Minister of Education SS. Uvarov report, which called for the fight against "black gang destroyers". Discrepancy Viazemsky with the prevailing ideas in society increasing, and by the end of his literary career, and worldly old writer has remained aloof from the life. Most of his writing has become casual and fragmentary, lost its unity and completeness of the aspirations and steeped peevish and capricious staroverstvom. But the Pushkin era Vyazemskij had a major significance in the progressive literature, and his works of this period are necessary material for its study. They were published in twelve volumes of Count SD. Sheremetev (with NP. Barsukova, YA.K. Groth, п-.пг. Bychkova, MI. Suhomlinova); they also published four volumes of correspondence Viazemsky with AI. Turgenev (edited by VI. Saitova); additions to it, from Turgenev's archive, published by the Academy of Sciences (edited by NK. Kuhlman). - See. "Collection of the Division of Russian Language and Literature of the Imperial Academy of Science", t. XX, 1880. (Article YA.K. Groth, MI. Sukhomlinov, SI. Ponomarev); NP. Barsukov "Life and Works Stamp. Pogodin "(passim); VD. Spasovich Prince Pyotr Andreyevich Vyazemskij and his Polish relations and dating "(Works Spasovich, t. VIII, 1896); SS. Trubachev "Writer 20-ies. Prince P.A. Vyazemskij "(" Historical Journal ", 1892, N 8), D. Languages Prince P.A. Vyazemskij "sketch (Moscow, 1904); H. Kuhlman Prince P.A. Vyazemskij as a critic "(" Proceedings of the II Division of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, t. IX, 1904, Book 1) AN. Pypin "History of Russian Literature", t. IV, chapter 8, and. Porfir'yev "History of Russian Literature", h. II, Dep. 3, P. Vengerov Sources dictionary of Russian Writers, t. I. N. L.

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