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Madison, James

( President of the United States in 1809-17 gg.)

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Biography Madison, James
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When President James Madison argued June 1, 1812 to Congress its proposal to declare war on England, . that all these violations of American interests in general regarded as disrespect for the sovereignty of the United States as an independent nation,
. Turning to the past, he explained in a 1827 decision to declare war in 1812 as a choice between "war and humiliation" (letter to Henry Wheaton on 26.2.1827). His contemporaries knew what that meant: he saw that his life is in danger. Madison rightly identified his life's journey from 1774 with the creation of American nation-state. Few are so actively and in such responsible positions as he helped unite the thirteen ready to resist wayward colonies into a federal state a new type. No one can with the same base claim to the title "father of the Constitution". The consolidation of bursting in 1787 in a different part of individual states and regions within the Union, created great difficulties, remained the strongest motive of political life in Madison his entire life. The unresolved issue of the war against Great Britain meant for him the final confirmation of independence.

Social background and the socioeconomic foundations of Madison were the same as that of his predecessor, Jefferson. His parents came from families of large landowners, long living in Virginia. As wealthy pioneers, they settled in the western foothills of the Blue Mountains, where fertile land is perfectly suited for the cultivation of tobacco with a few dozen slaves. James was born here in 1751 as the eldest among his eleven brothers and sisters. Having the right to inherit the plantation, . which was treated with his father and younger brother, . demanded only content, . as public office brought him more spending, . than income, . while he as president did not, . Finally, . earn 25 000 dollars per year,
. Unrequited Madison family plantation Montpelier in 1800 was the largest in the district and there were about 10 000 acres and more than 100 slaves. In connection with the decline of tobacco cultivation in the region, Madison, like Jefferson, he could not pay debts burdened plantation, and to release their slaves.

. After several years of private lessons on the plantation of parents and five years in a boarding school he was at age 18 in 1769 went north to college Nц?o Jersey, . Today Princeton, . whose president has paid great attention to the dissemination of ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment,
. After four successful years in 1773, the year of "Boston Tea Party, returned to her parents' home without a clear idea about their future profession and in the style of the rural gentry engaged in various research. Unlike many colleagues had no lawyers' education, perhaps because his contemporaries are often talked about the weakness of the constitution.

. In his first public office he was elected to the age of 23, when in 1774 Orange County has established an illegal committee to coordinate resistance against British colonial rule tightening
. In June 1776 Madison represented his district in the Revolutionary Congress, which enacted the landmark declaration of fundamental rights and the first republican constitution of Virginia, even before the Continental Congress declared independence. In the election campaign for a seat in the new Virginia House of Delegates in 1777, Madison lost, allegedly because he refused to put the traditional keg of vodka citizens, were not afraid of difficulties the way to the polling station. Instead, the legislature elected him to two years on board the governor of Virginia (1777-1779) and then sent to 1783, and later again in 1786-88 he. Congress Confederations. Madison unsuccessfully proposed to Congress to create a source of income, independent of voluntary payments to the individual states. Disillusioned with the slowness and incompetence of the Congress of the confederations in the face of the urgent needs of the war and its funding, in 1783, he returned to Virginia.

Voters in his district re-send it in 1783-86 he. in the Virginia House of Delegates, where in 1786, despite fierce resistance from representatives of the populist sentiments, he has the law on freedom of religion and separation of church and state, which was the foundation of the American Enlightenment.

. As a delegate to the Virginia trade conference in Annapolis in 1786, Madison, along with other supporters of constitutional reform has facilitated the convening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and was sent there as a delegate to the Virginia
. In an unpublished manuscript of "Vices of the political system of the United States at Madison analyzed in 1787, . before the convening of the convent, . causes of insolvency Articles of Confederation and also pointed to the chances, . the principle of representation provided by the state with a large territory and the various interest groups - representing, . perhaps, . formed by reading David Hume.,

. Calm, persistent and determined Madison had made in Philadelphia and the confidence of many delegates could play a mediating role between regional and constitutional and political stances in favor of a new, more powerful federal government
. Since the Virginia House of Delegates again seconded to the Congress confederations, then in 1787-88 he. He was in New York and was able to help New Yorkers Alexander to Hamilton and John Jay in a sensational series, . of 85 newspaper articles, . to campaign for the ratification of the Constitution of the State, . where before that was dominated by criticism of a stronger central government,
. Collection of these signed by the pseudonym "Publius" essays appeared in book form under the name "Federalist" in a timely manner before the election in the New York convention to ratify. The 10 th article "Federalist," written by Madison, and today still rated as one of the first concepts of modern pluralistic groups. Madison called the principle of representation of the vital nerve of the republican form of government and argued that the application of the federal principle will create a vast, extending far to the west of the republican state. A series of articles is generally considered a true commentary on the constitution founding generation.

. In the summer of 1788 Madison was chosen as Orange County in the Virginia ratification convention, where it is urgently required perseverance and conviction that contributed to the success of the supporters of the Constitution
. In the first House of Representatives of the United States he carried the promise opponents of the Constitution, and prepared the first ten amendments to the constitution, which in 1791 entered into force as the Bill of Rights. Madison belonged to the House of Representatives until 1797 and as the exponent of the views of critics of political and economic program of the Hamilton founded with Jefferson's opposition party, the Republicans. President Jefferson appointed a close political ally from 1801 to 1809 Minister of Foreign Affairs in his office and worked closely with him. Since then, no longer had such a harmonious relationship between the president and foreign minister.

. James Madison elected president in 1808 preceded the first in the history of the presidency, openly contested within the party nomination of a candidate
. While Madison has never been made public with the election speech in the later sense of the word, but his political friends, especially Jefferson, as a result of long persuasion have voting electorates. One of the intra-party agreements concerned the assignment of New York friends to the party vice-president is unable to function as 60-year-old George Clinton, . which in 1812 was replaced by a more competent Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts,
. The most important theme in the discussions were manifested in the 1808 foreign policy and economic damage to the ineffectiveness of the boycott of trade in 1807, as well as replacement activities. Many Americans suffer from falling prices are not legally exported more agricultural products, particularly wheat, corn, cotton, wool and fish. The Owners of New York and New England, demanded the immediate resumption of commercial navigation. However, in his speech on taking office March 4, 1809 Madison stood on tested points of the Republican program, . including economical governance and, . in cases of conflict, . strict interpretation of the Constitution in favor of the authority of individual states (as long as they do not threaten the federal government),
. New Madison was the proposal to grant Indian tribes a great help and prepare them for life "in civilization". However, this idea he developed a detailed program of integration of Indians. Madison shared Jefferson's belief in the high value agriculture as a form of life and production, . However, during his presidency, acknowledged, . that the coexistence of different groups, . also interested in trade and manufactures, . is the stability of the United States, . that, . likely, . will still grow,
. Not being a supporter of romanticized republicanism independent from imports of small farmers, he wanted to keep an open world market for American products, or open it.

. In the house of the president began a new, lively reception that his stately, cheerful wife, Dolly Payne Todd dowager, she loved to organize
. She worked on the completion and finishing by the president's house and garden, gave soiree on Wednesday, ordered their accessories in Paris and insisted on four-horse for trips to visit his new role. She was able to connect European flavor with the Republican self-confidence. Dolly Madison was considered the first First Lady in the history of the American presidency, although the concept has become common until much later. Despite the fact that the marriage was childless, the house of the president rarely lived less than twenty families, among them children from his first marriage with their families and friends. After her husband's death in 1840, she took care of the publication of its historically irreplaceable records of debates constitutional convention in 1787.

. Many visitors have described the 58-year-old President of a small and weak, with a bald forehead and the voice, completely inappropriate for public speeches
. Diplomats after talks with him on the lack of charm, but also the extraordinary intellectual acuteness. His personality has led contemporaries to believe, . that he sought the post of president is not out of lust for power, . and a sense of duty, . the fact, . that as a leading member of the House of Representatives realized in the fight against the Minister of Finance Hamilton, . how strong may be coming from the president of pulses, . even for the legislation.,

. In forming the Cabinet Madison too took into account the intra-party critics in the Senate and regional proportions, so that got only mediocre members of the cabinet, except for remaining in the Ministry of Finance Gallatin
. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the insolvent was Robert Smith of Maryland, . dealing with the imposed, . disloyal and unauthorized diplomacy in favor of England, . so that the president has become more and Minister of Foreign Affairs, . while, . Finally, . in 1811 did not bring to the post of James Monroe, . Governor of Virginia.,

. Madison has shown himself as president, . ready for expansion, . when in October 1810 announced the annexation of Spain belonged to the western Florida, . after the American rebels overran Spanish fort Baton Rouge and without unnecessary ceremonies proclaimed republic of West Florida,
. In January 1811 he also unilaterally implemented the American claim to the eastern Florida.

. Britain, by contrast, was the enemy, irritating and difficult to influence, so that in the end of October 1811 at Madison decided on war as a last resort policy
. Nesnosheniya Act of 1807, conceived as a means of coercion in the hands of the president against the British and French blockade of navigation, was a bad weapon. Minister of Finance Gallatin advised to begin preparations for war. Congress was divided. Madison refused to actively form an opinion in the legislature and from the active weapons program,

. May 23, 1812 Madison received a communication from the British Foreign Secretary Castlereagh on 10 April that the British government will not unilaterally lift the blockade of European ports
. Since Napoleon also continued to blockade British ports, the United States could only theoretically declare war on the two European powers, from a maritime power of England came, however, more extensive threat. June 1 Madison presented the Congress to support the declaration of war: Britain behaving with hostility toward the United States as an "independent and neutral nation '. Confiscation of merchant ships, stealing "thousands" of American sailors and incitement of Indian tribes is a crime. The vote, held with unambiguous majority in favor of declaring war in the House of Representatives (79:49) and in the Senate (19:13), there were fierce debates. At the election of the Congress in 1811 from the South and West in Washington was aimed at a number of war-minded deputies - the "war hawks". Commission on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to substantiate its approval of the plenum patriotic appeal, which said that Americans must now once again to defend freedom inherited from England. Congress met behind closed doors, without visitors, without the press. Opponents of the declaration of war, as John Randolph of Virginia, warned against ill-prepared of the weapons "without money, without Sol dates, without the Navy ... and without the courage to raise war taxes ". June 19 at Madison announced a state of war with Britain.

As soon unexpectedly received the news of the decision of the British government to lift the blockade, Madison proposed to begin negotiations for an armistice. He demanded an end to forced sailors, to release the abducted Americans, pay damages for seized American ships and lift the blockade of European ports to neutral merchant ships. August 29, 1812 the British government rejected these conditions, and the war went on as usual.

The dissolution of the Bank of the United States proved to be unprofitable. Regular in 1811 extension of the legal foundations of the Bank was rejected by Congress against the proposal of the Minister of Finance of Gallatin and several nenastoychivo expressed wishes of the President. Only the experience of war prompted Madison to achieve in 1816 the resumption of the banking license. War Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs were incompetent. Minister of War John Armstrong Madison gave the order after a number of its unauthorized actions to obtain the consent of the President to "general orders" in the army and to discuss with the governors of the use of police, . processes of the military tribunal, . appointment and dismissal of officers, . creation of military districts and contracts with Indian tribes,
. Thus, it was the first president, who was a declaration of war and established a significant part of the competence of the commander in chief, beyond the strategic decisions. But the nature of even this did not satisfy him.

A broad front was the refusal of the war in New England and the central states. This was manifested in the electoral College vote on Dec. 2, 1812 for re-election of Madison. True, he received 128 votes against 89, be given to candidates from the Federalists, but no votes from New England and Middle States north of the Potomac (with the exception of Vermont and Pennsylvania).

. Military conflicts going on three fronts: on the northern border with Canada, on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, especially in the mouth of the Mississippi
. The capture of Quebec and Ontario in the summer of 1812 was supposed to link the British troops and bring a real guarantee for the negotiations, not joined by Canada to the U.S.. Madison did not want the British territory - has compiled historian Robert Rutland military purposes Madison - no repatriations, no surrender of England ... He wanted recognition from the British leadership that the United States, not dependent distant relative, a sovereign power. "

In April 1814, Napoleon abdicated. Madison, not without reason, feared the transfer of the liberated parts of British North America. June 6, 1814 Gallatin, then a truce, told him of Ghent on his impression that the British government wants to punish Americans for an attack on Britain, and may require a return to Louisiana to Spain. Worried about Madison and his cabinet decided June 27, 1814 to abandon an explicit condemnation of coercion sailors in the peace treaty and to take the state before the war as a basis for negotiations. But fighting continued on all fronts and in August 1814, British forces attacked the capital of Washington, meeting no resistance, and burned down the residence to scuttle President, the Capitol and all the ministries.

. Better protected port city of Baltimore and New Orleans
. Under New Orleans, General Andrew Jackson, who has acquired experience in the wars with the Indians, struck on Jan. 8, 1815 soundly defeated more than 5 000 British attackers. This was a tremendous victory for the Americans on land. The explosion of national enthusiasm was low for the end of the war, as the envoys had December 24, 1814 signed in the Flemish city of Ghent Peace Treaty. The President arrived in Washington on Feb. 14, 1815, after a week after reports of success in New Orleans. He was pleased with the confirmation of the status quo, . because it has at least one of the hidden goals of the war: the unresolved outcome of the war with the greatest maritime power of the United States claims, . at least, . as a functioning nation and takes seriously the social system in the Americas.,

. In the past two years in Madison in the position of co-operation between the president and Congress proceeded without problems
. Madison spoke in favor of protective duties in favor of domestic manufactures. But remained faithful to a strict interpretation of the Constitution. On the last day in office rejected another draft bill, which provided 1.5 million dollars to build roads and canals. Jefferson could opt out of the use of the veto, and political theory made it possible to expect the consent of Madison, with an explicit will of the majority in the House of Representatives and the Senate in this matter. But Madison felt obliged to comply with the requirements of the Constitution in the spirit of figures in 1787. Father of the Constitution so used to for the last instruction. In support of the veto, he wrote that the rights enumerated in the Constitution, Congress, and in certain situations justified clause does not allow for their expansion of federal spending. Similarly, reference to the promotion of "common good" in the preamble of the Constitution does not confirm these costs, it should not be abused so as not to make the all-powerful federal lawmakers. But the orderly change in the constitution, "he said between the lines, of course, nothing can prevent.

Madison still managed to hold its position desired successor, James Monroe. When he, . freed from the burden of post, . sailed 6 April 1817 along with his wife and household on a steamer down the Potomac River to the place, . where he spent his old age, . it was, . According to one of the satellites, . "happy, . a schoolboy, . riding on vacation ",
. But even in retirement he took an active part in constitutional matters. He rejected the compromise of Missouri in 1820, because it (correctly) feared that the prohibition of slavery north of Missouri would allow the new states, free from slavery, to achieve long-term superiority in Congress. On the other hand, he did not accept unilateral demands of South Carolina to assess the constitutionality of a federal law. Conservation Union remained its political guiding light.

In the question relating to slaves, and in his personal life was no clear position. He, however, agreed that he was elected chairman in 1817 founded the American Colonization Society, which has already returned freely dispensed in Africa (were ready, only a few African-Americans). Madison wanted the republic, . free from slavery, . but going to the decline of its revenues eventually bankrupt tobacco plantations prevented even, . that he could write in his will more than, . that the slaves on his plantation to be sold only with their own consent and the consent of his wife, Dolly.,

. In his political testament, . summary, the council of my country "by 1834 confined itself to Madison saying:" My heartfelt ongoing advice and my deepest conviction is that, . that the union state must be kept in order and continue ",
. With him died in 1836, the last founder of the nation.

Source: Peoples.ru

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