David Garrick( Actor London theater 18 century)
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Biography David Garrick
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes - Henry IV issued the act of toleration, equalizing the rights of the Huguenots (French Protestants) and Catholics. Now for trying to emigrate Huguenots relied death penalty. The latter, however, nobody was afraid of. He had only to give anyone a bribe and then should be - on all four sides. So he found himself in England, a rich French merchant, La Garrigue, who became a foreign land Garrick. His children's fate has developed differently. One settled in Portugal and became the largest wine merchant. Another remained in England, married an Irish and bought a commission. So Captain Garrick and vegetating in a provincial town, burdened with the offspring of six children, who, of course, the other a better future. At one of them, David, hopes were especially high. The boy was alive, which ran to knowledge, and his father sent him to his brother in Lisbon - God willing, he will make from the vintner.
D. Zoffani. David Garrick in the comedy 'My wife Provaka' 1763-1765
David and accurately in Lisbon succeeded, albeit in his. When my uncle going to the merchants, he amused them to fall. From the secrets of wine trade is, unfortunately, distracted, and a year later, the boy had to be sent home - to the merchants he obviously was not fit. Well, Captain Garrick hand on him did not wave. I decided to put on the academic part and gave them just to open a school of Samuel Johnson, the good money he took small - lived on the content-rich wife, a lot of his older. The scientists really had a remarkable. Subsequently, he became a leading British literary critic and author of the famous dictionary.
Here are all my knowledge he did not manage to convey to David. His wife was terribly sick, he threw home, school and went on foot to London (travel money was not), taking only his favorite, David. My father once took care of him and arranged to one lawyer, who lived near the capital. That little later from the student refused.
David no interest in law and not shown as he could, sitting in the London theater. But here, his luck did not leave. He received from his uncle's small wine cellar just in front of Covent Garden - one of the two (the second was called Dryuri Lane) leading drama theater of the city, not far from another theater, Gudmens Fields.
J. Reynolds. 'Garrick between tragedy and comedy Muses' 1747
Forthcoming Garrick became one of the most popular people in the London theater - actors felt in him the man. Hour test was already close. In 1740 ill-known London harlequin Yates, and Dzhiffard, director of the theater Gudmens Fields, who have often seen Garrick in their performances, asked him to speak instead of Yates. Garrick put on a mask of a harlequin, and played so that no one noticed the replacement. Season was over, and Dzhiffard Garrick took with him on summer tour. Fortunately, with him gone, Charles McLean, a few months before that rocked in the role of Shylock ( "The Merchant of Venice 'William Shakespeare). McLean was a character actor who transformed this traditionally comic image in a tragic. Other major actors' achievements in McLean was not, but over time he became famous as a theater teacher. McLean managed to do away with the melodic recitation of which came from the classical theater actors. He forced his students to pronounce the most commonplace remarks tone, and then build on these intonation, adjust to the conditions of the scene. Garrick learned from Maclean long, but when his phenomenal abilities that was enough. In 1741 Dzhiffard gave him the role of Richard III, promised that he will be brought before the public as a 'gentleman, which first appeared on the stage'. It was a way to lure more people into the hall, but the way is dangerous. It happened that the audience did not like them to beat a novice. With Garrick, of course, nothing like that could befall. The very next day in a review reported that in London there is now a great actor. Since then, one success followed another. Not all, however, came easily. Special efforts required role of King Lear. Garrick was then 25 years old, and he had to play a man in years. Eyelid image was given to him easily, and yet after six representations of the performance comes at a time to withdraw. Garrick began to prepare the role again.
Not far from the theater was a man who once dropped out of the window his two-year old daughter and mad. The whole day was a normal person, but at a certain hour approached the window, filling the street with shrill cries, which once 'lost' grisly scene. Garrick was his frequent guest, which helped the actor perform the scene of madness in 'King Lear'. But this is not the main. Working on the role, Garrick opened a very important feature of his talent. He was in the course of the performance needed contrasting states. And in order to play well the tragic old man, he wrote for a scene, where he represented the comic boy. Then Garrick in the role of King Lear awaited triumph. He does say that it is impossible to perform well the tragic role, not being a full-fledged comic actor. Where else would take the famous garrikovskoy character? He always played the man rather than the position which he held. About the previous Executive role of King Lear said that it 'every inch - King'. About Garrick - that it 'every inch - King Lear'.
One of the great roles Garrick was Hamlet. Attendance has fascinated that scene, where Hamlet meets his father's shadow. German physicist and theater critic Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, . who at that time lived in London, . thus described it: 'Hamlet is walking on the left, . upstage, . and, . when it stops, . turning to the audience back, . Horatio suddenly exclaimed: 'He, . Lordship, . look! " - And shows the right hand, . where there is, . just petrified, . anyone hitherto unseen ghost,
. At these words Garrick lightning turns and at the same moment rebounds in two or three steps back. His legs give way, his hat flies to the ground, both hands ... stretch, fingers spread out, open my mouth, in this position is he just dug in, supported by friends, who fear that it may fall. His face is so awful that the audience embraces fear, even before he utters a single word. After a long pause, he accepted to talk, but not from the beginning of breath, and at its end, so that the words 'On the strength of heaven, protect us ...' tremble in the air.
Ghost beckons him ... Garrick's eyes glued to the ghost. It is not a word corresponds to a Friend. Finally, when they persist for too long, he turns to face him, desperate effort to burst out of their hands ... snatches a sword from its sheath and directs it to them saying: 'I swear I will make in the spirit of the ...'. This is for them fairly, then it sends the sword to the ghost: 'Come, I'm for you' - and the ghost leaves. Garrick was still standing motionless with a naked sword, as if willing to be at a greater distance from the ghost, he slowly begins to follow him, pausing and then continuing on their way, before holding a naked sword.
. His eyes still riveted to the ghost, his hair disheveled, breathing stops - so gradually he hides behind the scenes'.
. This episode is based on differences of movement and stillness
. Garrick has always maintained its system of contrast. However, the initial scene was like a 'director's intro' to the whole image of Hamlet, who is indecisive, it is ready to act. But the description Lichtenberg interesting for another reason. Garrick magnetically acted on the audience. Their attention is so focused on it that nobody but him, they have simply not seen. Only in this way and could appear 'hitherto unseen ghost'.
. But, of course, the strongest contrast actor Garrick nature manifested itself in its ability for one play brilliantly played and farcical and tragic role
. His performances in the 'correct comedy' stand along with the famous tragic roles. He was a consummate Benedict in Shakespeare's 'Much Ado About Nothing', Abel Draggerom in 'The Alchemist' Ben Johnson and many other ro-Lyah. His work on the way Draggera he described in a small pamphlet, published anonymously. Dragger - tobacco merchant, who decided to receive medical treatment from quack doctor. He is committed to him such respect, . that quite faint in his presence and can not move either leg, . no hand, . but when he tries to turn, . touches the outstretched hand urilnik, . breaks it and horrified - he's chosen physician cheap, . and urilnik is, . be, . God knows how much money,
. And, explaining the status of his hero, Garrick says later, as should play: 'His eyes should be turned to the subject matter, which it occupies the most, and his lips stretched in the direction of the subject. This creates the impression of relaxation of every muscle. If the head bend in the direction of the vessel, it will give the upper part of his body is very clear expression of the comic horror and sty-da. To lower torso and was equally comic, you need feet toes turn inward, and hold breath. Abel will inevitably feel the trembling in my knees, and if at the same time his fingers tighten convulsively, it will create a complete picture of the grotesque horror, which, under a brush Dutch artist '.
. This description prompted theorists Theater decide that Garrick was, as they said, 'bezemotsionalnym' actor
. And in fact, he first analyzes the state of Abel, and then sets out the amount of tricks that express that state.
This opinion Garrick still bou-Lee reinforced his speech at the British Embassy in Paris. He left the banquet hall, . sticks his head between the two halves of the door, . and for four or five seconds on his face consistently changed expression: from the frantic joy - to the quiet, . from it - to remain calm, . of peace - to the amazement, . astonishment - to the surprise, . then - to grief, . to depression, . to the horror, . Finally, . disgust, . and then in reverse order - again to the mad joy.,
. Attending the luncheon Denis Diderot infer from this that Garrick - a veritable actor submission
. Can a man's soul to possess this plasticity? Garrick, he said in his treatise 'The paradox of the actor', demonstrated his amazing ability to mimic - not more. With him, not all were willing to accept. And, above all, those who worked with Garrick. Among them was the greatest choreographer Jean Georges Nover, author of the famous "Letters of dance '(1760). He told us how desperately tormented Garrick before the premiere, 'implanted in the image'. And on one performances of 'King Lear' in the scene where the aged father curses his daughters, Garrick became so ecstatic that tore off his gray wig and threw them behind the scenes - and finish the action. And he had short hair, black hair.
So who was Garrick - 'actor representations' or 'actor experiences'? Neither one nor the other. He was "absolutely an actor '- one of the greatest in the world theater. The feeling engendered in its action, action - a sense. In general, he was in all respects 'man of the theater' - and the actor and playwright, and theater administrator, and director.
. As a playwright he not only left a few comic scenes, but also interfered in the creative laboratory of William Shakespeare
. XVIII century was not able to take this writer's full. Of his plays throwing the comic scenes (well, 'Hamlet' was not an episode from the grave-diggers), devised for his tragedies happy ending, fit in with their moralizing monologues. Alter the Shakespeare and Garrick. But he is closer than anyone else, kept Shakespeare's text. He is revered as one 'of the great bard'. In his estate (and Garrick soon became one of the richest men in the English theater), he found a bust of Shakespeare, and that he returned the former glory of their native city of the famous playwright. The first Shakespeare Festival, which he organized in Stratford-upon-Avon, failed. There was bad weather, and the invitation from London to the public seized bugs. But Garrick, spending a lot of money, brought the city clean, and new festival marked the beginning of a long glorious tradition.
Garrick acted Gudmens Fields briefly. After his success in the role of Richard III, he played in the comedy Buckingham 'rehearsal', which so successfully parodied the leading artists of London, that they have closed this theater. One season Garrick worked in Dublin, and then began to reign forever in the company Dryuri Lane. In 1743 he took the theater lease and remained its leader until 1776, when he sold his R.B. Sheridan. Hardly in England and throughout Europe was rumored that Garrick left the scene in London launched the invasion of spectators. And to everyone's surprise, he played his old role as if he had passed dozens of years. He still seemed full of energy.
Stay Garrick in Dryuri Lane was a whole epoch in the history of this theater. Friends said that communicate with Garrick was not easy. Nature of whimsy, not always possible to guess what expect from him. But once came down to it, it becomes solid and consistent. In his theater Garrick brought an order that called him 'the little tyrant'. And for a long time kept on him gratefully. He freed the stage from the audience, . gave scope for actors, . fought against the legacy of classical dominance words on the game, . Entered long, . one year, . rehearsal, . a lot of work with individual actors, . trying to convey to them all, . that he knew, . always taking into account the individual partners, . and so little by little to create an ensemble,
. He cared about the typical makeup and costume history. For registration performances invited 'King decorators' Philip James Loterburga, when it became the scene covered ramp, but not chandeliers, as previously. In short, he made Dryuri Lane of the then most modern theaters. After Garrick Theater could not be as before.
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. 'I happened to see how he played the tyrant, who dies, goading the remorse and horror, the enormity of his crimes
. The last act was entirely devoted to his remorse and sorrow. The man took the upper hand over the murderer and a Barbarian: heeding the voice of humanity, cursing the tyrant of his crimes, it is now gradually become a formidable judges, his executioners. With each moment of death all the more impressed on his face, . eyes fading, . all with great difficulty, he uttered the words, . his gestures, . without losing their expressive, . betrayed the approach of the last moments, . legs are weak, . features sharpened, . pale, . Deathly man expressed remorse and flour,
. Finally he fell to the ground, and in that moment all the accomplishments of his crimes in horrific images rose before his mind's eye. Pursued by the terrible pictures of these atrocities, he tried to fight with death - the nature, it seemed, did it one last effort. This scene evoked awe, he zarapal nails ground, as if digging a grave for himself, rookovoe moment came nearer, we saw first hand the death. He died - a suicide hiccups, distorted face, convulsive movements of the hands, convulsively heaving chest completing this awesome picture. "
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