Jacob Boehme (Boehme Jakob)( German mystic and philosophizing theologian who is often called the 'philosopher of the Germans')
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Biography Jacob Boehme (Boehme Jakob)
Born April 24, 1575 in Alt-Seidenberg, the village near GцІrlitz in Saxony. He was raised in the Lutheran faith and had received only primary education. He worked as herdsman, was then determined in an apprentice to a cobbler in the Seidenberg and in 1599 opened his own shoe shop in Gorlitz. In 1600, apparently under the influence of the local pastor, Martin Muller, Boehme experienced vivid mystical insight, which was revealed to him that everything is 'Yes' and 'No'. As soon as Boehme are spiritual maturity, his mystical experience deepened, and in the end he presented his insights in a series of great theological and philosophical writings. His first book, . Aurora, . or Dawn in the ascent (Aurora, . Morgenrte im Aufgang, . 1612), . - 'Infantile beginning', . as he called it, . - Nevertheless, attracted general attention, . bringing the City Council banned GцІrlitz Boehme deal composing,
. Boehme was silent for seven years, but then yielded convictions of a small circle of friends and admirers, secret access to its works, resumed his literary career. From 1619 until the end of life Boehme wrote 30 books and treatises (some of them are not completed). In these writings he appears as one of the greatest speculative philosophers of the West, who had a significant influence on F. Schelling, GWF Hegel, A. Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, E.fon Hartmann, Bergson, Heidegger and M. P. Tillich.
Works Boehme can be divided into several groups. Among his philosophical works include treatises on the three principles (Von den drei Principien, . 1619), . On the threefold life of man (Von dem dreifaltigen Leben des Menschen, . 1619), . Forty questions about the soul (1620), . On the Incarnation (Von der Menschwerdung Christi, . 1620), . On sealing of all things (1622), . as well as two mature works: the election of grace (Von der Gnadenwahl, . 1623) and a great mystery (Mysterium magnum) (1623),
. Mystical and religious writings about true repentance (1622), On the revival (1622), On the suprasensuous Life (1622) and the divine prayer (1624) are usually issued under the name Way to Christ (Der Weg zu Christo). By apologetic writings include two treatises, napravlennyt against radical sectarianism Stiefel and Meta, two - against kriptokalvinista (ie. accused in a hidden commitment to Calvinism) Balthasar Tilke and one - against persecution by gerlitskogo pastor Gregor Richter.
In Boehme's worldview is dominated by two motives - typical for German mysticism introspection and Renaissance natural-philosophical outlook. He tried to understand how has this contradictory world, rooted in God, which Boehme defines as' the abyss (Ungrund) and foundation (Grund) of all things' as' Yes' and 'No' 'grim will anger' and 'fire will love '.
Died Boehme in GцІrlitz 17 November 1624.