Hopvud James Jeans (Jeans James Hopwood)( English mathematician, physicist and astronomer.)
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Biography Hopvud James Jeans (Jeans James Hopwood)
Born September 11, 1877 in London. In 1900 he graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University. In 1901-1905 and 1910-1912 and taught mathematics there, in 1905-1909 - professor at Princeton University (USA). In 1923-1944 - member of the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA), in 1935-1946 - professor of astronomy at the Royal Institution (London).
The first works were devoted to the Jeans' kinetic theory of gases and the theory of thermal radiation. In 1905 he independently from Dzh.Releya established the law of energy distribution in the long-range part of the blackbody radiation.
Since the mid 1910-s Jeans interests have focused on astrophysics. In 1914-1916 he studied the problem of equilibrium of rotating liquid masses, and analyzed the evolutionary path of a rapidly rotating liquid body. One of the conclusions arrived at by Jeans, was that the planetary system can be formed from a rotating mass of gas. Thus, the solar system could be formed from a substance ejected from the Sun by the gravitational pull of a passing star (tidal theory). This theory is very popular in the 1920-1930's, but was later proved its failure. In 1916 Jeans The theory of dissipation of planetary atmospheres, due to the Maxwell distribution of velocities, derived a formula for the flow of dissipation due to evaporation of gas in the atmosphere of the planet (formula Jeans). Applying the apparatus of the kinetic theory of gases to the ensemble of stars, showed that the distribution of stars in velocity must eventually approach the Maxwellian due to their gravitational interaction. Used this idea to estimate the age of stellar systems. Jeans number of papers devoted to the theory of the internal structure and evolution of stars.
Among the major works of Jeans - Dynamic Theory of Gases (Dynamical Theory of Gases, 1904), Problems of cosmogony and stellar evolution (Problems of Cosmogony and Stellar Evolution, 1919), Astronomy and Cosmogony (Astronomy and Cosmogony, 1928).
Approximately 1928 Jeans engaged in the popularization of science. His most famous non-fiction books - Mysterious Universe (The Mysterius Universe, . 1930), . in which he concludes, . that God - pure mathematician; stars and their fate (The Stars in Their Courses, . 1931); Eos, . or Cosmogony in a broad sense (Eos, . or the Wider Aspects of Cosmogony, . 1929),
. Later he turned to philosophy and wrote a book New Foundations of Science (The New Background of Science, 1933) and Physics and Philosophy (Physics and Philosophy, 1942).
In 1906, Jeans was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, from 1919 to 1929 served as Honorary Secretary. In 1923-1924 was president of the Royal Astronomical Society. Jeans was awarded numerous medals and prizes. Among them - the Franklin Medal (1931), Prize. Dzh.Adamsa Cambridge.
Died Jeans in Dorking (Surrey) 16 September 1946.