Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov( Russian mathematician.)
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Biography Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov
Born 12 (25) April 1903 in Tambov. After the death of the mother was brought up and was adopted by her sister. Early childhood spent in the mother's parents' family estate in the Yaroslavl Province. In 1910, after moving to Moscow and entered the private school EA Repman, organized circle of radical intellectuals. Here is jointly taught boys and girls program gymnasium - a unique phenomenon in the time. Great advances in mathematics allow future scientists to engage on the subject of a class above, . but at the time of interest in other sciences prevailed, . and the first scientific report, . which 17-year-old Kolmogorov made at MSU, . focused not mathematics: the seminar SV Bakhrushina he gave a presentation on the Novgorod land tenure,
. However, when analyzing scribe books 15-16 cc. they used elements of the mathematical theory of probability.
In 1920 Kolmogorov entered the Mathematics Department of the University (which at that time take all comers without exams) and at the same time - in metallurgy department Mendeleev Institute of. But soon the interest in mathematics was outweighed everything else. Since 1922 in parallel with studies at the university, he taught mathematics in secondary school. In the same year under the guidance of Professor. VV Stepanova began studying the theory of trigonometric series, several later became a pupil of Luzin. At the time of graduation from the Kolmogorov was already about 15 articles on the theory of functions of real variable.
After graduating from university in 1925, he entered graduate. Continuing to engage in under the leadership of Luzin's theory of functions of real variable, and began (with A. Ya) to work in the field of probability theory, who later became his main narrow specialty. After graduate school he worked in the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University (in 1933-1939 and 1951-1953 he was director). In 1930-1931 in the first nine months of probation in the universities of GцTttingen, Munich and Paris, where he met with R. Courant, Weyl, David Hilbert, etc.. In 1931 Kolmogorov - Professor of Moscow State University. In 1954-1956, and then from 1978 until the end of life - head of the department of Mathematics, Mechanics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow State University, from 1954 to 1956 - Dean of.
Breadth of scientific interests Kolmogorov unprecedented: they range from meteorology (Kolmogorov was an honorary member of the American Meteorological Society) to the theory of verse (released collection of his works, edited stihovedcheskih DS. Likhachev). In the well-known anthologies van Heijenoort (Van Heijenoort J. From Frege to Gdel. A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931. - Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press, 1967, she enters into a series, each book is a collection of articles, which determined the structure of a science), devoted to mathematical logic, an article by 22-year-Kolmogorov. Author describes it as 'the first systematic study of intuitsionnoy logic'. Gallery of portraits of scientists in the field of classical mechanics, given in the classical monograph by Abraham and Marsden Foundations of Mechanics (Abraham R., Marsden JE. Foundation of Mechanics. Readin, Mass.: The Behjamin / Cummings Publ. Co. 1978), contains, along with a portrait of Archimedes and the portrait of Kolmogorov, and his report General theory of dynamical systems and classical mechanics at the International Congress of Mathematicians 1954 in Amsterdam fully reproduced in the monograph. In addition to classical mechanics, Kolmogorov made an outstanding contribution to the aerodynamics (the theory of turbulence).
However, the main activity was the mathematician Kolmogorov. A list of only some areas of mathematics, . where he had left a deep impression, . includes the theory of functions (where the student's work 19-year-old author, . establishes the existence of almost everywhere divergent Fourier series, . once made him famous), set theory, topology (where he shared the authorship of the theory of homology with P.S,
. Alexandrov) information theory (where he and Shannon have built the base of this science), theory of algorithms. Finally, the theory of probability, recognized worldwide head of which he was. Applying this method the theory of functions of a real variable, he built (with A. Ya) A system of axiomatic justification of this science (1933). Kolmogorov's work on limit theorems, the general theory of random processes and the theory of Markov processes continue to play an important role in the modern theory of probability, and his book Basic Concepts of Probability Theory (1933) is considered a classic. Using the theory of probability, Kolmogorov developed a method to build forecasts based on observations of random events. This method has found application in solving a wide range of issues, such as the problem of landing on the deck of an aircraft carrier at sea, which amounts to calculating the most probable location of an aircraft carrier at the moment.
Kolmogorov-depth research shows that the value imposed by the concepts of time only increases. Thus, in early 1954 he was offered the general idea and the concept of enumeration reducibility of numberings. Now based on these representations theory is an important branch of the enumerations of the theory of algorithms, Publication of monographs and conference. Pioneering were many methods proposed by Kolmogorov. So, . the study of Hilbert's famous problems of superpositions, he not only showed the possibility of presenting any continuous function as a superposition of continuous functions of three variables as, . but also created a method, . allowed his pupil Arnold in 1957 to reduce the number of variables to two and thereby solve the problems mentioned,
Kolmogorov belongs to the first place among national mathematics inostrannh the number of academies and scientific societies, elected him a member, as well as universities, have made him an honorary doctor. Among them: the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society, Germany Academy of Sciences 'Leopoldina', the London Mathematical Society, National Academy of USA, etc..
Kolmogorov made a unique contribution to the dissemination of mathematical knowledge. He is the author of textbooks and numerous scientific and popular articles, the initiator of the publication of Physics and Mathematics magazine for youth 'QUANTUM'. He also originated the idea of creating a famous boarding school at MSU for the gifted in physics and mathematics of nonresident students. Many students Kolmogorov became prominent scientists in different fields of mathematics, among them - VI Arnold, IM Gelfand, MD Millionshchikov, V. Prokhorov, etc..
Died Kolmogorov in Moscow October 20, 1987.