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Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista)

( Czech physiologist.)

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Biography Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista)
photo Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista)
Born December 17, 1787 in Libohovitse in northwestern Bohemia (now in Czech Republic). After graduating from the local school, continued his studies in Mikulov (Moravia) in high school, belonged to monastic order piarists. After eight years of education decided to become a member of the Order. Shortly before taking vows Purkyně carried away by the philosophy. Gone to Prague and enrolled at the school of philosophy at Charles University. Two years later, became a mentor, a son of Baron Hildprandta, who offered to pay for five years training Purkyně in medical school University of Prague. After graduation (1818) Purkyně within a year he worked at the university clinic. He specialized in surgery, anatomy and physiology. In 1823 he was invited to the post of professor of anatomy and physiology of the University of Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland), where he worked for 27 years. Since 1839 both led them based in Breslau, Institute of Physiology. In 1850 he was invited to the post of professor of physiology at the University of Prague, in 1851 founded and headed the Physiological Institute.
Work Purkyně devoted to general physiology and the physiology of the senses. His research on visual perception, had a great influence on the development oftalmometrii and ophthalmoscopy, allowing for constructing theories of central and peripheral vision. Purkyně constructed a device for measuring the visual field (perimeter), . defined the role of the lens, . found a change in the brightness of colors with a gradual increase of light (at first become more vivid shades of blue, . and then red-orange flowers; 'Purkinje shift'),
. Investigated visual sensations to the eyes in the galvanic current and lapidary. Its named after a characteristic picture of the location of vessels in the eye (vascular figure Purkyně), a mirror image of objects on the refracting surface of the eye (image Purkyně).

Purkyně held numerous microscopic studies. Constructed a microtome, put into practice histological Canadian balsam and indigo dye, developed a method for bleaching textiles in turpentine and olive oil. Examined under a microscope the movement of cilia ciliated epithelial cells of mammals, . studied the microscopic structure of plants, . skin, . glands, . bones, . teeth, . cartilage, . nerves, . heart tissue, . found individual differences in capillary figures on the fingers (later on the basis of this discovery was established fingerprinting),
. Microscopic studies Purkyně formed the basis of cell theory, which he formulated in 1837. In the same year, scientists discovered the existence of an analogy between the structure of animal and plant cells. Coined the term 'protoplasm', described the cell nucleus. Described the neurons of the spinal cord and brain of vertebrates. Discovers special large neurons in the cerebellum (Purkinje cells). He opened the myocardial fibers, forming a conductive system of the heart (bundle Purkyně).

Purkyně advocated the right to teach in schools in the Czech language, tried to create the Czech Academy, which would be the scientific and cultural center of the country. Participated in the organization 'of the Journal of Czech Physicians' ( 'asopis Lkaru Ceskch'), founded by the Czech Medical Society. At the end of life Purkyně translated into Czech poetry of Goethe and Schiller. Name Purkyně awarded the University of Brno, Czech Medical Society, which established the medal behalf. Purkyně died in Prague on July 28, 1869.

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Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista), photo, biography
Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista), photo, biography Purkyne Jan Evangelista (Purkyne Jan Evangelista)  Czech physiologist., photo, biography
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