Gustave Flaubert (Flaubert Gustav)( French writer, often called the creator of the modern novel.)
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Biography Gustave Flaubert (Flaubert Gustav)
Born December 12, 1821 in Rouen, where his father was the chief physician of a local hospital. From 1823 to 1840, Flaubert studied at the Royal College of Rouen, where not achieved much success, but expressed interest in history and a great love for literature. He read not only fashionable at that time, the Romantics, but also Cervantes and Shakespeare. In school, he met the future poet L. Buie (1822-1869), who became a lifelong friend of his faithful.
In 1840, Flaubert traveled to Paris to study law. Prozanimavshis three years, he has failed to pass exams, but reduced the friendship with writer and journalist M. Du Kahn (1822-1894), who became his companion in travel. In 1843, Flaubert found similar to epilepsy, neurological disorder, and he was prescribed a sedentary lifestyle. After his father's death in 1846 he returned to the estate under Croissy Rouen, took care of his mother and worked primarily in literature. Fortunately, he had a condition which freed him from the need to earn a living from the pen or other means. Similarly, he could realize his dream of traveling and spent years writing a single novel. He honed his style with the utmost care, leaving only a professional conversation with the brothers Goncourt, I. Taine, E. Zola, Maupassant, and G. I. Turgenev. Even his famous love story connected with the poet Louise Cole, and in their extensive correspondence, the main theme was the literary problems.
Flaubert was brought up on the works of FA Chateaubriand and Victor Hugo, and gravitated toward the romantic mode of representation. Throughout his life he sought to suppress the lyric-romantic beginning for the most objective picture of everyday reality. Early to start writing, he soon realized in a conflict between the intended purpose and inclinations of his nature. The first of his published novels - Madame Bovary (Madame Bovary, 1857.
Great work of literature, Madame Bovary, marked the turning point in the development of the modern novel. Flaubert worked over every sentence in search of the famous 'proper words' ( 'mot juste'. His interest in the form of a novel, . successfully implemented in the unique structure of Madame Bovary, . had a strong influence on subsequent writers, . set themselves to create new forms and techniques - Henry James, . Dzh.Konrada, . Dzh.Dzhoysa, . M. Proust, and many,
The main theme of Madame Bovary was the eternal conflict between illusion and reality, between life and invented a genuine. For disclosure of this topic Flaubert used a non-heroic impulses of a noble person, and pathetic dreams commonplace burghers. Flaubert gave his dull-witted characters sublimely universal value. Madame Bovary was first published in the journal "Revue de Paris' in 1856, . however, . despite the fact, . Alarmed that M. Du Kang and M. Pisz made major adjustments and reductions, . the author and editors prosecuted for offending public morality,
. After a sensational trial - one of the most famous literary battles on the legal field - Flaubert was acquitted, and in 1857 the novel appeared in book form, without any cuts.
Second novel, Flaubert, Salammbo (Salammb, 1862), was the result of a trip to Africa in 1858, as well as significant historical and archaeological Studies. Obviously the author's desire to turn away from everyday life, creating an epic canvas of topics hoary antiquity. The action takes place in Carthage after the 1 st Punic War, when the mercenaries under the command of Mato revolted against the Carthaginians led by Hamilcar.
In the third novel, Sentimental Education (L'ducation sentimentale, 1859; rus. translation in 1870 under the name sentimental education), . Flaubert wrote the story of his generation, . zamorochennogo romanticism and lavish promises of a humane social order theorists, . however, forced to the ground after the crash of 1848 and the collapse of idealism,
. Educating the senses is an impartial portrait of a lost generation
. Which started long before Madame Bovary and, on the advice of Buie and Du Kang, finished the Temptation of Saint Anthony (La Tentation de Saint-Antoine, 1874) owed its origin painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, that Flaubert saw in Genoa in 1845
. The idea to show off the temptations that beset the saint, took Flaubert rest of his life, and its embodiment in the novel, the dialogue is an attempt to show every imaginable sin, heresy, religion and philosophy.
The three stories (Trois Contes, 1877) include plots of two types - a deliberately mediocre and flowery historical. Quick and powerful story about the life of the village maids (simple heart - Un Coeur simple) consists entirely of a chain of losses, . left it to the end of his life only a stuffed parrot, . to which it is attached to such an extent, . that unconsciously begins to regard him as the Holy Spirit,
. In the legend of St. Julian Strannopriimtse (La Lgende de Saint-Jullien l'Hospitalier) medieval righteous, repentant of the sins of youth, the latter being the supreme test: a leper drawn to him asking for a kiss. Having fulfilled his desire, Julian finds himself face to face with Jesus, ascended to the heavens. Herodias (Hrodias) tells of Salome, which requires the head of John the Baptist.
Eight of the last years of life Flaubert gave her beloved child - a novel Bouvard and Pekyushe (Bouvard et Pcuchet, 1881, rus. translated 1881), which remained unfinished. In the history of two petty officers, who decided to devote his leisure time and small income research in all branches of human knowledge, are the main target of endless madness and folly of the human race. Flaubert with grim relish classifies all examples of this kind, forcing our heroes dedicate their lives to the creation of an anthology of absurdities found.
One of the greatest works of Flaubert, continued to generate strong interest, became his Letters (Correspondence, publ. 1887-1893). In a casual conversation with friends, he pours out his thoughts on paper, . not worrying about style and so providing a unique opportunity to see the artist, . Analyzing his work in the daily creation and formulating their ideas about the nature of literature,
. Along with the striking self-portrait of the Flaubert's correspondence contains astute observations about people and customs of the era of the Second Empire.
In recent years, the life of Flaubert pursued misfortune: the death of his friend Buie in 1869, the occupation of the estate of advancing enemy army during the Franco-Prussian War, finally, serious financial difficulties. He does not know a commercial success with the publication of his books, which have long aroused opposition from critics. Flaubert died in Croissy May 8, 1880.