FRIEDRICH I (Friederich I Barbarossa)( Deutsch king and Holy Roman Emperor, the first prominent representative of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.)
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Biography FRIEDRICH I (Friederich I Barbarossa)
(ca. 1122-1190), often referred to as simply Barbarossa (Italian. 'Red Beard')
Frederick, son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia, and Judith (daughter of the Duke of Bavaria Henry IX, the representative of the family at odds with the Hohenstaufen Welf), was born, probably in Waiblingen. His father was a nephew of germanskogo King Conrad III, and on his mother - a nephew of Henry X the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. Father's death in 1147 Frederick became the Duke of Schwabsky (as Frederick III), and when Conrad died in 1152, he was elected King of Germany's. Nation then torn by internal contradictions, and one of the main conflicts took place just between the dynasties of Welf and Waiblingen (Hohenstaufen). Being bound by ties of kinship with those and others, Frederick was able to stop the heavy long conflict, returning to his cousin Henry the Lion (son of Henry X the Proud, ie. Welf) the Duchy of Saxon and Bavarian. At the same time Frederick was able to give some compensation to the other German princes, also claim on these properties, thereby reducing their dissatisfaction.
In 1155 Frederick was crowned as emperor in Rome by Pope Adrian IV, whom he helped to crush lasted in Rome from 1143 riots, which led to the establishment in the city of the republic. One of the leaders there was a religious zealot, . disciple of Abelard Arnold of Brescia, . which is under pressure from the Pope and threatened approaching Frederick fled to Tuscany, . knights of the same Frederick grabbed him and gave the pope, . Arnold betrayed the death at the stake,
. The main objective of the Italian campaigns of Frederick (there were five: 1154-1155, 1158-1162, 1163-1164, 1166-1168, 1174-1178) was the restoration of Germanic legal and administrative control over the cities of northern Italy. To put its power on the legal basis, in 1158 Frederick appealed to the Reichstag, held in Ronkali (near Piacenza), Bologna lawyers specializing in the study of the recent revival of Roman law. They gave the name of the imperial regime Sacrum imperium (lat. 'Holy Roman Empire').
The reason for the protracted conflict with the papacy Friedrich (1160-1177) was the fact that the emperor continued to assert their claim to power over Italy. He refused to recognize Pope Alexander III, who became a champion of the movement against imperial control of Italy. But attempts to establish Friedrich Germanic control over the papacy had failed both because of the spiritual resistance to such control of other powers in Western Europe, . and because of the armed opposition to the cities of northern Italy, . united in the Lombard League,
. In 1177 Frederick was forced to acknowledge Alexander III and peace of Constance (1183) reached a compromise with the cities of Lombardy, . which retained political autonomy and at the same time meet their financial interests, the political authority of the Emperor of Tuscany preserved,
In 1180 Friedrich together with Germanic sovereigns, hostile Henry Leo, tried to overthrow this powerful Duke: Henry was deprived of most of the possession and sentenced to three-year exile from Germany. But the Emperor was unable to use this to strengthen its position as the sovereign ruler of northern Germany. In 1186 Friedrich made what appears to be the greatest achievement of his diplomacy: the marriage of his son Henry VI of Constance, heir to the throne of the kingdom of Sicily. Henry VI was also heir to his father on the imperial throne. In May 1189 Frederick led the 3rd crusade, but the 10 June 1190 on the way to the Holy Land drowned, overcoming riding river Salef (sovr