SHARKO Jean Martin (Charcot Jean-Martin)( French neurologist, founder of clinical neurology.)
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Biography SHARKO Jean Martin (Charcot Jean-Martin)
Born November 29, 1825 in Paris. He graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Paris (1848). In 1853 headed the university clinic, from 1860 Charcot - Professor of Neurology, University of Paris. The first scientific work of Charcot dedicated internal medicine: gout as a special, distinct from rheumatism diseases, tuberculosis, feverish, pathologies of the heart, lungs, liver, kidney, embolism, thrombosis, etc.. Questions of Neurology started in 1862, with the transition to work in the Salpetriere hospital, based in 17. as a women's shelter for the poor, the elderly, prostitutes and the mentally ill, and besides, as a prison for women convicted of adultery, theft, murder. At the time of receipt of Charcot at the Salpetriere in the service of this institution has lost many of their prison functions, but it still contained about 5 thousand homeless women. Charcot several years organized here the various services and laboratories, in particular the postmortem lab. Using pathomorphological data, he established a link between polio and some other diseases that manifest in muscle atrophy. Described the TN. Charcot's joints (neuropathic joint swelling caused by degeneration of the spinal cord) and proved that this pathology is not associated with rheumatic. In 1868 the first detailed description of multiple sclerosis, and in 1869 - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (disease, at which the motor neuron degeneration and sclerosis of long conducting paths in the brain and spinal cord). Together with C. Bouchard established causes hemorrhages in the brain. Being engaged in spinal cord injuries, a detailed description of its anatomy and physiology
. Studies of brain, . made Charcot in 1870-1880 and continued by his disciples, . aroused great interest of neurologists, . physiologists, . Surgeons, . as well as philosophers and psychologists, and created the preconditions for the formation of the British school of dynamic neurology and neurophysiology,
. In 1872, Charcot was elected to the French Medical Academy, in 1881 became an honorary member of the American Neurological Association. The following year the decision of Parliament and the Ministry of Education of France in the Salpetriere specifically for Charcot established the Department of Nervous Diseases. His fame as a scientist, clinician and educator attracted to him many students and patients from around the world. In 1883 Charcot was elected a member of the Institute of France.
Widespread popularity had Charcot's lectures on hysteria and hypnosis. And while many of its conclusions were subsequently found faulty, through tenacity and descriptions of the methodological soundness of these works have retained their value and become a scientific basis for the development of modern psychiatry. One of his many outstanding students was Sigmund Freud
. Charcot was not only a scientist, . but a great painter, . collecting pictures, . mosaic, . Tapestries, . icons and bas, . depicting patients with neurological disorders, . and on the basis of his collection published (in collaboration with P. Richet) two books: The madness of art (Les Demoniaques dans l'art, . 1887) and deformities and disease in the art (Les Difformes et les Malades dans l'art, . 1889),
. Died in Charcot Morvane (Niц¬vre Department) August 16, 1893.