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( Prominent Chinese philosopher neokonfutsianets)

Comments for HUANG TSZUNSI
Socio-political activist and scholar and lexicographer, engaged in history, geography, mathematics, astronomy, music theory and calendar calculations based Zhejiang historical school. Born September 24, 1610 in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province. He was the son of a major political figure, a representative Dunlinskoy group, ended his days in prison in 1626. Sam Huang Tszunsi also was close to Dunlinskoy school, creating inheriting her ideas 'Revival Society' (Fu Sheng), and was a pupil yanminista (cm. Wang Yangming, Wang Yangming School) Liu Tszunchzhou (1578-1645). Juan Tszunsi led political and armed struggle against the invading Manchus in China, both before and after their accession to the throne in Beijing in 1644. Cease resistance in 1649, he settled in his homeland in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province (where the place and Wang Yangming) and engaged exclusively scientific and literary work. Died Huang Tszunsi August 12, 1695.
Juan Tszunsi brought glory above all his historical works, especially those connected with the events of the recent past - Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). He created classic works on the history of Chinese philosophy, the period of its highest development in the dynasties of Song, Yuan, Ming (10-17 cc.): Sun Yuan Xue Anh (Report of the teachings of [periods] Sung and Yuan), Xue Ming, Ms. Anh (Report Confucian teachings [era] Min). His first independent treatise Ming and writing fan lu (Notes for the expected visit [the ruler of the period] Lost Light or, . another possible understanding, . Notes, . educate the barbarians in anticipation of the arrival of [sovershennomudrogo ruler]), . written in 1662, . devoted to social science issues (re-released in Beijing in 1955),

. In general theoretical terms Huang Tszunsi criticized as a Buddhist heresy defended the school Ch'eng I (1033-1108) - Zhu Xi (1130-1200) and dominated the official Neo-Confucianism priority 'principle' (li1), . Emphasizing the primacy of correlation in every way it 'pneuma' (tsi1): 'it, . that pervades heaven and earth, . permeates the ancient and modern, . can not can not be a single air (and qi) and only ',
. Vsenapolnyayuschaya, which is 'one root' (and Pen) pneuma 'gives birth to people, creates things', but the principles are ordering it 'applies' (Liu Xing), so the 'no air no principles' and 'principle - a principle of air'

. Supporting advocated the opposite direction in the Neo-Confucianism, . School Lu Tszyuyuanya (1139-1192) - Wang Yangming (1472-1529) priority of 'heart' (sin1), . Juan Tszunsi claimed, . that 'all fills heaven and earth are the heart' and 'so exhaustive [research] means the principles of exhaustion of Darkness features in own heart, . rather than the exhaustion of Darkness features the darkness of things',

. The combination of these two plants has led to Huang Tszunsi 'identification of the heart and air' (hsin chi, qi): 'a person receives air from the sky, . to live, . and has only one heart, and all ', . 'the sky is the pneuma, . in a man's heart, . the sky is the principle, . in man is [an individual] nature (sin1) ',

. The dynamic nature of air as the substrate gnoseopsihologicheskogo center - the heart, . in turn, . caused by activity interpretation of knowledge, . expressed in the interpretation of 'completing' (chzhi5) from the fundamental thesis of Wang Yangming of 'bringing knowledge to the end' (chih liang zhi) with the category 'action' (sin3, . cm,
. Kyi - IND).

According to Huang Tszunsi, all people from birth are driven by private interests and the desire to benefit / profit (li3). But in society ( 'Celestial') should be the overall benefit / profit, for which he is responsible first and foremost ruler.

In assessing the role of the latter to abide by the Chinese philosopher Mencius priority of people over the governor and the acceptability of the overthrow of the vicious Emperor (Mencius, VII B, 14, I B, 8). Hence Juan Tszunsi concluded that there should be 'regarded as a subject of the Celestial (literally: the owner), and the governor - as an object (literally: guest), but not vice versa. Such an ideal situation, in his opinion, existed in ancient sovershennomudryh sovereigns, who were able to voluntarily relinquish power. In the future sovereigns by universal desire for personal gain / benefit was seen as the Celestial their private property and treat it as an object, and themselves - as the subject. Since the same spirit arises naturally in other pretenders to the throne, in the state formed an inexhaustible source of struggle and confusion. In addition, when the governor replaces the public their personal interests, the interests of his subjects are unsatisfied. Therefore, such a ruler represents the 'great harm to the Celestial'

. Total, . Recalling the various historical and mythical precedents, . Juan Tszunsi recognized as a legitimate hereditary, . and non-hereditary monarchy, . Considering the main criterion for the legitimacy of the monarch's commitment to public benefit / benefit, . the interests of all Celestial, . rather than the interests of himself or his family,
. According to Huang Tszunsi, legitimate Chinese monarchy was from ancient times to the end of 3. BC, ie. at three ideal dynasty - Xia, Shang-Yin and Chou. Violation of the right foundations of statehood happened during subsequent dynasties, the founders believed to be the Celestial their family heritage.

In order to guarantee the legitimacy of government Juan Tszunsi offering various activities, mainly related to three areas - legislative, administrative and ideological

. Contrary to popular opinion then, . that the order or sedition in the country depends primarily on the specific people, . not the laws, . he put forward the principle, . according to which first have to 'be sorted laws, . You then see streamlines people ',
. Laws themselves (F) Juan Tszunsi share on 'the laws [for all] Celestial' (Tian Xia zhi fa) and 'laws [for] one family [the ruler]' (and jia zhi fa). The first are also 'not legalistic laws' (y fa zhi fa), and the second - 'unlawful laws' (fei fa zhi fa). More in the first ease, the less confusion in the country, the more in the second refinement, the more confusion they generated.

Juan Tszunsi denied the immutability of the laws, arguing that 'Each age has laws of the era', and proving it with the help of historical research. Legislative innovations, he argued the principle that 'compliance with the laws of [its] time determines the order' in the country. Following the traditional belief in the 'golden age' of antiquity, as the innovations in this field, Juan Tszunsi proposed 'ideal' laws of the first three dynasties (Xia, Shang-Yin Chou) and preceding his mythical time. The action of these laws' benefits / profits from the mountains and water did not need to draw up to exhaustion, not a fear of losing the balance of rewards and punishments; noble abode not in the court, . low-born - not in the backwoods, in the next century, . I took the condemnation of now, the laws of simplicity, . Celestial people do not see [this] not possible greed of the upper, . neither possible hate the lower classes',

In the historical process of change, ie. degradation, . laws Juan Tszunsi identified two completed periods - from the original ancient times to the fall of Zhou and the accession of the Qin Dynasty (221-206), . from the Qin to the fall of Sung (960-1279), and the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1367) - and one incomplete, . covering the modern era it,
. Apparently, . the completion of the last time he saw the implementation of the traditional Chinese ideology scheme triadic cycle, . is present, . particularly, . by Mencius, . have targeted philosopher (Meng-tzu, . VII A, . 30, . III B, . 9, . III A, . 2, . VII B, . 38, . II B, . 13), . then Tung Chung-shu (2,
. BC), in the school texts of new writing, traditions Gunyan Zhuang (5-2 cc. BC) and Ho Hsiu (129-182) (cm. YES TOON-great unity)

. In the arguments of the administrative sphere Juan Tszunsi also relied on Mencius, . who described the following system of grades and titles: Emperor ( 'son of heaven'), . Duke (gun1), . Marquis (hou1), . Earl (Bo), . Viscount (zi), . Baron (nan) ruler (jun), . Chancellor (tsin2), . dignitary (yes fu), . servitor (shi4) (Meng-tzu, . V B, . 2),
. Juan Tszunsi interpreted this system as evidence that the ancient ruler of the state or even the Emperor was not fundamentally separate from the administrative hierarchy, but includes in it like all the lower levels. In other words, the attitude of the ruler to the Chancellor of the same relation to the Chancellor of the dignitaries and so on, and the ratio of the Emperor to the Duke like the latter to the Marquis, etc.. 'Initially, the meaning of the appearance of the ruler was to organize the Celestial. Celestial Empire can not be rationalized by one man, so established to streamline the bureaucracy for its. So the officials are the physical embodiment (fen shen) ruler '.

This is a edinotelesnost Juan Tszunsi basis for dissemination of the principles of formation of the administrative hierarchy of the ruler himself, especially with regard to the order of succession. 'In ancient times, [the authorities] is not passed on to his son, but decent. On the deprivation of the Son of Heaven [his] status or abandonment per se regarded as the [provision] First Minister. Subsequently, the son of heaven, to transmit [his power] to his son, and the first minister - no. Not all the sons of the sons of heaven were worthy, but because it is to fill the transfer of [post] first minister worthy, is not lost, and meaning, [laid earlier] transfer worthy of [the authorities] son of heaven. When the Abolition of the same [post] first minister to the unworthy heir to the son of heaven there is no worthy vospolnitelya and meaning transfer [the authorities] also lost her son! ". The abolition of the post of first minister (Tsai Hsiang) Juan Tszunsi regarded as very concrete political action, . undertaken the founder of the Ming Dynasty - Zhu Yuanchzhanom in 1380 and entailed, . according philosopher, . violation of the order during the entire reign of this dynasty,

According to Huang Tszunsi, in the State in addition to hereditary or non-hereditary ruler requires non-hereditary prime minister, ie. Head of Government. The latter, he proposed to build on the model proposed by the first minister of the famous Tang Dynasty (618-907) - Zhang Shaw (667-730). Such government, . formed by the first minister, . should consist of the office of administrative affairs (Zheng Shi Tang) and its subordinate five chambers: the Chamber officials (Li Fang), . Supreme Chamber of Control (shu ji fan), . Military Chamber (bean fan), . Chamber of Population (xy-fan), . House of punishment and rituals (syn Li Fang),
. With a certain degree of conventionality office administrative cases can be considered analogous to the Cabinet, . and five houses - the equivalent, respectively, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, . State Board, . Military Ministry, . Ministry of Finance, . Ministry of Justice and ceremonies,

Non-hereditary character of positions within the state apparatus, promoted by Juan Tszunsi entails appointing top, not bottom of election. Highest, ie. designating, for instance ruler in non-hereditary monarchy recognized or its predecessor, hereby release or bequeath his throne, or the sky itself, according to ancient theory of 'heavenly predestination' (GE-min, sm. MIN-Predestination) announces his 'son' carrier greatest grace (DE) among the people and replace them automatically lose that 'sonship' vicious ruler.

The described Juan Tszunsi power apparatus for the proper performance of its functions still requires at least two instances - raised or discussed laws and supervising their implementation. Y Huang Tszunsi they are combined in one instance, which has also of educational, scientific and educational functions. This instance, he believed, schools of all levels, thus introducing its program in the field of ideology.

Juan Tszunsi argued that since the Qin Dynasty, ie. primarily due triumphed then Legalism, the ideology of the country was centrally decreed: 'truth and lies in the Celestial Empire were established only court'. Independent minds at different dynasties created informal associations, . private schools and academies, . trying to use them to influence the administration, . but, . usually, . subjected to various kinds of repression, . that undermined the foundations of public life and even lead to political collapse,
. Juan Tszunsi indicated on the reverse, the positive examples. Thus, in Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) 13 thousand people, consisting of higher schools (Tai Xue), actively and successfully influenced the government authorities.

Schools in China has always played a particularly important role. It is not only a higher esteem for the elusive literacy and learning, but also in the socio-political function of education. CO 2. BC. the country launched the examination system, conditional on receipt of civil service jobs as defined education qualification. Thus, administrative and educational system closer to each other. So Juan Tszunsi defined the school as 'places where nurtured servicemen'. But then he added, that their value does not stop there, but lies in the fact that 'all means of streamlining the Celestial proceeded from the schools'.

In his portrayal of Juan Tszunsi schools are not only forge cadres, but also a kind of representative bodies, capable of expressing public opinion and wafting up to his entire administration, including the emperor. The education system should be unified, nationwide, but its constituent schools must be intellectually independent, allowing free expression of views.

In high school, playing the role of the capital's university, Elder-rector (literally: the perpetrator of the sacrificial libation of wine - Chi Chiu) and the right to choose its membership the largest Confucian scholars of his time. On the status of it is equivalent to the prime minister and in the case of the latter's retirement could take his place. On the first day of each lunar month, the Emperor, accompanied by senior officials and advisers should attend the lectures, the rector of the elders in the metropolitan high school: 'Elder-rector, . turned toward the south, . pronounces instructions, the son of heaven is among students',

Is toward the south - the canonical pose emperor, ie. highest carrier power (see, for example, Analects, VI, 1, XV, 4 / 5). Hence, in this situation as such, of course - at the time, it becomes teaches elder son of the sky-Rector. Here, as in the arguments about the role of a decent first minister in unworthy ruler, clearly visible a desire Juan Tszunsi a function of senior officials somehow limit the omnipotence of the emperor.

In classical Confucianism from its very inception was attended by such efforts, served as the basis for the exaltation of the role and empowerment of councilors Confucians. By definition of Confucius, the ideal monarch, 'omits orders' Celestial (Analects, XV, 4 / 5). 'Inaction' (Wu Wei) is meant the absence of a pragmatic intervention in the course of dealing cases, . guarantee the normal course of which were to be the direct spiritual and moral impact on the people and the sovereign right of the selected them worthy of Ministers,
. In contrast to this classical Confucian theory, Juan Tszunsi tried to introduce some restrictions in the 'omission', and of the Emperor

. Since the main vector of the political initiative in the program, Juan Tszunsi remained directed downward, . normal forms of impact on the bottom of the emperor confined to the ideological and educational field, . which led to thoughts about certain pedagogical measures in relation to the heir to the throne,

Juan Tszunsi offered to teach her son the emperor in a metropolitan high school when he reaches fifteen years with the children of higher officials (parallel to this - a project of the Lyceum of Tsarskoe Selo in Russia in the early 19 century.). The purpose of this study - 'to know the real flashy and properties of people' and 'a little to take up the work'

. According to the plan Huang Tszunsi, . leaders of the lower levels of administrative hierarchy - officials of the District and county poverty should receive instruction in their respective educational institutions are increasingly, . than the emperor and his retinue, . namely, two times a month - the first and fifteenth of the month,
. In the case of detection of major administrative irregularities and omissions scientist mentors ought to announce them publicly with drums.

Juan Tszunsi advocated an egalitarian redistribution of land, restoration of the ancient system of 'manhole fields' (jing tian, cm. JIN TIAN, Jin Wei), . reduce taxes on peasants and their (tax) pyatistupennuyu differentiation depending on the fertility of the earth for, . not only to agriculture, . but also trade and craft was regarded as 'main occupation'; for the unification of the monetary system, . issue of paper money and the establishment of banks, for a system of conscription, . in which every fifty people exhibit a recruit, . and ten families provide him with food,

. Socio-political, economic and legal ideas Tszunsi Juan had a great influence on Chinese reformers late 19 - early 20 century. Especially Tsichao Liang (1873-1929), who used them in the struggle for democratic transformation in the country.

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