Cicero, Mark Thulium (Cicero, Marcus Tullius)( The Roman orator, philosopher, politician)
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Biography Cicero, Mark Thulium (Cicero, Marcus Tullius)
Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 106-43 gg. BC. e., Roman orator, philosopher, politician. Born in Arpine in Latium, came from a wealthy equestrian family. Together with his younger brother Quint (cm. Quintus Tullius Cicero) received a comprehensive education. He studied first at Rome: he studied rhetoric at Elia Stilona, knowledge of jurisprudence and the practical skills of rhetoric derived from such experts in civil law, Mutsy Scaevola Augur, and later - Mutsy Scaevola Pontifeks. His teachers were so well known then speakers, as Mark Antony and Lucius Crassus. Since it introduced the philosophy of Philo of Larissa, stoic Diodotus, who lived in the house of Cicero, and others. Youth T. comes at a time of war with the allies, as well as at the time of internal political unrest. After the initial speeches and oratorical success between 81 and 79 years. In 79-77 years., C. left to travel to Greece and Asia Minor.
During the six-month stay in Athens, he listened Antiochus Askalonskogo and already known in Rome Epicurean: Zeno and Phaedrus. Then he visited the Asian province, and from there went to Rhodes, where he met with Posidonius of Apamea. At Rhodes, he studied rhetoric in the school founder of the so-called moderate style of speech, Apollonius Molon, who strongly influenced the formation of their own style of speech Y. Upon his return to Rome Y. actively engaged in oratorical activities, persistently trying to achieve fame, needed to launch a political career that began in 75 g. as a homo novus, in 69 g. became aediles, 66 g. - Praetor in 63 g. - Consul. In the same 63 g. C. exposed and disrupted a plot Catiline. With the new political order, after the conclusion I triumvirate in 60 g. (Caesar, Pompey, Crassus), and the consulate of Caesar in 59 g. influence T. decreased. Accused of illegal death penalty for the conspiracy Catiline, C. was forced into exile. Soon, however, he returned to Rome and showed greater activity in an attempt to sue the confiscated property, as well as giving speeches in other court cases. In 51-50 years. became governor of the province of Cilicia in Asia Minor. The position is performed in good faith, even winning a military victory over Parthia. In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey Y. served on the side of Pompey, considering his defender of republican ideals, and followed him to Greece. After the defeat of Pompey in 48 g. under Pharsalus in 47 g. returned to Italy, made peace with Caesar, who showed him the favor.
Y. provided evidence of their loyalty in some speeches (Pro Marcello, Pro rege Deiotaro). During this challenging time T. experienced as a family crisis: in 46 g. He divorced his first wife and Terence joined a failed relationship with a young Publius. In 45 g. He survived the death of his beloved daughter from his first marriage Tullio. He retired to his home, once again seeking solace in philosophy and literary work. However, he failed to remain an observer of events unfolding. In 44, after the assassination of Caesar, in 14 speeches, called by the C. philippics (cm. Demosthenes), he attacked Mark Antony, whom he regarded as the main enemy of the republic, seeing salvation in his political rivals - a young Octavian (cm. August). At the conclusion of the so-called triumvirate II in 43 g. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus, Antony, Octavian has a death to his enemy. C. was killed on 7 п╢п╣п╨п╟п╠я─я▐ 43 g. far from his villa in Formia. - The literary heritage of C. includes speeches, essays on rhetoric, philosophical treatises and letters. Speeches illustrate 30 years of his extremely active life (81-43 years)..
They have been carefully prepared for publication. Often, in its final literary form, they differ from the actual spoken. Style clearly evolving: from that used in the first performances of Asian style, . sublime, . saturated metaphors, . rhetorical ornaments, . with the characteristic long periods, . through the "middle" style - a more moderate, . also with ornaments, . but less pathetic, . Y,
. came to quite simple and devoid of ornaments "Attic" style. But he managed, depending on the nature of speech and the audience to use them all. Speeches U. distinguished scholarship, flight and humor. Their impact was based on the art of periodization and aligning harmoniously constructed sentences, replete with carefully chosen stylistic means. Of the oratorical legacy C. survived 58 speeches entirely or largely, and 20 fragments. Based on the nature of these speeches, they could be divided in the most general form of judicial and political. The most famous of the first - In defense Kvinktsiya (Pro P. Quinctio; 81), first published it in the civil trial, marked by features of the Asiatic manners, and speech at the trial against the Werra (70), the viceroy of Sicily in 73-71 years. Who made a great abuse there. The lawsuit against Werra includes: Speech against Quintus Caecilius (In Q. Caecilium), substituted Werra the role of the prosecutor, the first speech against the Werra (In Verrem actio I), after which the Werra was sentenced to exile, and second speech against Werra (In Verrem actio II) in 5 parts.
The latter never delivered, masterfully handled literary and represents an important document for the establishment of management practices used by the provincial administration. Her fourth part, under the title of the statue (De signis) gives an overview of works of art in Sicily. Defending Mureny (Pro Murena; 63), the playful, very successful stylistically. In defense of the poet Arhiya (Pro Archia poeta; 62) contains, inter alia, the praise of poetry and science. From the speeches of a political nature first - this is about the leadership of Pompey (De imperio Gn. Pompei; 66) in the war with the king of Pontus Mithridates. Speeches against Catiline (In Catilinam orationes IV; 63 g.), revealing a ruined aristocrat, leader of the coup was being prepared in Rome. These speeches were four. Of these, the most famous first. It is distinguished by a mastery of the so-called middle style. Speeches against Antony (In Marcum Antonium orationes Philippicae; 44), who was fourteen, spoken in the Senate and the people in order to save the dying Republic, passionate and full of insults, once again becoming pathetic. Works on rhetoric concerning the theory of rhetoric: material selection, manner of speech, style, language and intellectual training speaker. He develops the views of the Greeks, adding their own observations of the judiciary and legal practice, allowing to update the content and give the product of a Roman character.
Thus, juvenilia Y. Rhetorical works (Libri rhetorici) in 2 books, which persisted in only part of the O content (De inventione; 81), the bears traces of the author's acquaintance with Greek textbook on rhetoric Germagora and anonymous essay Rhetorica ad Herennium. The best product on the same subject He (De oratore; 55 g.), built in the form of a dialogue, aimed at resolving long-standing dispute on the characteristics of speech: they lie in the fields of philosophy (Aristotle) or rhetoric (Izokrat). C. combines these two views in the statement that the ideal speaker, but skills in their craft should have a thorough philosophical education. Added to this dialogue is the speaker (Orator; 46), in which C. painted image of an ideal speaker, drawing on the example of Demosthenes, who spoke fluent three styles. Own beliefs C. outlined in the book Brutus, which presented the history of Roman oratory, and gave instructions how to make a speech. He criticizes the proponents of so-called attitsisticheskogo style, simple, who takes a sample of the Greek orator Lisiya. The topic he raises is also a bit of work on the best orator (De optimo genere oratorum). In two works from the field of rhetorical technique T. returns to the themes raised in the writings of Rhetorical
. This rhetoric Categories (Partitiones oratoriae; 46 g.), . kind of textbook in the form of dialogue with the philosophical coloring, . Topeka (44 g.), . philosophical and rhetorical work, . starting point of reasoning which was Aristotle's treatise of the same name,
. C. expounds the quintessence of rhetorical theory, illustrating it with examples from the field of Roman law. All his philosophical works Y. written in 54-51 and 46-44 years. In accordance with the spirit of the time, C. was eclectic, that is, drew his views from several of the Greek philosophical systems. Of the Stoic philosophy, . presented in Rome Paetsiem, . He popularized primarily ethics; introduced to Rome with the philosophical views of the New Academy (Antioch Askalonsky), . theory of probabilities that he was close, . and Epicureanism, . speaking, . however, . against the freedom of manners, . which is sometimes wrongly attributed to the followers of this school,
. The best form of presentation of the philosophy of C. found dialogue, known from the writings of Plato and Aristotle in particular, he has also created a Latin philosophical terminology. From the vast creativity U. noteworthy Republic (De republica; 54-51) in 6 books, preserved only the end product, known as the Dream of Scipio (Somnium Scipionis).
With. develops this theory of the best polity. The Rights (De legibus; 51) represents an addition to the treatise The Republic. Of the 5 books have survived the entire first three, extremely valuable for the study of Roman manners and customs. Idea of creating both the above works have matured under the influence of Plato. On the nature of the Gods (De natura deorum; 45) in the 3 books provides an overview of the theory about the nature of God in the representation of various philosophical schools. The highest good and greatest evil (De finibus bonorum et malorum; 45) in the 5 books of surveys the opinions of different schools to the problem of good and evil. This work has considerable literary merit. Tuskulanskie debates (Tusculanae disputationes; 45) in 5 books contains rassuzhdeeniya of happiness and necessary conditions for achieving it. Cato of old age (Cato Maior de senectute; 45), the great treatise on Attica, in which C. contests shortcomings attributed to old age, highlighting the benefits of this age. On Duties (De officiis; 45) in 3 books, the last philosophical work Ts, devoted son Mark, full of concern for the common good. C raises the question of choice between what is worthy (honestum), and the fact that the useful (utile).
Merit C. consists not only in, . that he was acquainted with Greek philosophy Rome, . but in, . that in his works, he compared the Greek philosophical thought with the Roman tradition and Roman reality, . inter alia, through the Roman examples illustrate the theses,
. From the correspondence T. We know almost 1000 letters, composed in 4 collections. Letters to friends (Epistulae ad familiares) in 16 books (the name comes from the humanist) includes correspondence Y. with various people familiar to him, as well as their letters to U. Among others, we find letters Katona, Mark Lepidus, Azina POLION. Letters to Atticus (Epistulae ad Atticum; 68-44 years.) In 16 books. This collection contains almost exclusively by the letters T. to his friend Atticus Pomponia. This is the most personal and heartfelt letter, representing a source of knowledge of the author's identity, but above all - to explore the environment of the writer. Letters to his brother Quintus (Epistulae ad Quintum fratrem; 60-54 years.), A small collection of 3 books, contains the letter T. to his brother Quintus, and among them - the first comprehensive treatise on the management of the province, written in response to a letter from his brother for the Ts, when the latter fussed about the Consulate. Letters to Marc Brutus (Epistulae ad M. Brutum; 43) in 2 books contains correspondence C. with Brutus, one of the murderers of Caesar, and Brutus with C; among these letters is a letter of Brutus and Atticus.
Letters T. reflect the social life of Rome during the decline of the republic a quarter century, representing a valuable document of the era, revealing how human weakness, and the nobility of C. The letters C. presents an excellent stylist, and their language allows us to judge the daily Latin educated classes. Only short passages came to us from the poetic creativity U. A few larger fragments have survived from the poem Arateya, representing the translation of Greek works under the name Arata Phenomena, extended C. by data gleaned from commentators Arata. On its consulate (De consulatu suo), a poem, describing the act C. during his consulate, 3 songs led to his clash with Pompey and discontent of the last. Because it survived verse 3. Separation Heritage C. of speech and rhetorical and philosophical treatises have been introduced solely to simplify, because in reality, these three aspects of his work are closely linked. Prose in the works of C. rises to heights of excellence, providing him first place among the Latin stylists. Whole period, which created Ts, is called in literary history a century Cicero. Works C. and his personality had a significant influence on the founders of European culture.