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PLATO (Platon)

( Greek philosopher)

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Biography PLATO (Platon)
Plato; Platon, 427-347 gg. BC. e., Greek philosopher. Born in Athens. Real name P. was Aristokl. Nickname Plato (Broad) was given to him in his youth a powerful physique. Occurred from a noble family and received an excellent education. Perhaps listening to lectures geraklitika Cratylus, knew the popular works of Anaxagoras in Athens, was a student of Protagoras and other Sophists. In 407 g. became a disciple of Socrates, that defined the whole of his life and work. According to legend, after the first conversation with him, P. burned his tragic tetralogy prepared for the next Dionysius. As many as eight years, he never left his favorite teacher, whose image he had painted with such reverence in his later dialogues. In 399 g. Socrates, condemned to death, ended his life in Athens uzilische. P., who was present at the trial, was not with Socrates in his last moments. Perhaps fearing for his life, he left Athens and with a few friends went to Megara. From there he went to Egypt and Cyrene (where he met with Aristippus and mathematician Theodore), and then in southern Italy - the cradle of eleatizma (Parmenides, Zeno of Elea) and Pythagorean (Pythagoras). According to another version, P. from Egypt, he returned to Athens and just went from there to Italy.

In Tarentum, he visited the famous Pythagoreans Archytas, in Locri - Timea. Ok. 388 g. P. left Italy and moved to Sicily, to Syracuse, where the rules of Dionysius I the Elder. Follower of his philosophy was a relative of Dionysius, the young Cassius, but P. quarrel with the tyrant and he removed him from his state. May communicate with Dion inspired him to return to Athens to found in the gardens Academie first philosophical school, the famous Academy, where he taught until his death. In 367 g. died in Syracuse, Dionysius the Elder, . and P., . at the request of Dione, . second time came to court in hopes of Syracuse Tyrants, . that the new ruler Dionysius the Younger easily be exposed to its influence and that he thus realize their dream of a philosopher on the throne and of the state, . managed wise and just king,
. But the mission failed. Dionysius the Younger first hospitably received a philosopher and an interest in his teachings, but in the end, like his predecessor had forced P. off Sicily, and - moreover - was sentenced to banishment Dion, suspecting him of plotting. In 361 g. P. took the third and last trip to Sicily. This asked him to Dion, to the same bow Pythagoreans, but he tried in vain to influence the Dionysius and obtain permission to return to Dion. Tyrant is not only denied his requests, but also confiscated the property of Dion.

Held in Syracuse by force, Plato only with the assistance of architect was able to leave the State. He returned to Athens and there led by the Academy until his death in 347 g. - Come down to us, apparently, all the works of Plato. Complete their collection includes 36 pieces, divided by 9 tetralogy, which illustrate the development of philosophy P. Among them are also unauthentic dialogue. Authorship and chronology of the works of P. long and carefully studied, dating back to the Hellenistic period (Aristophanes of Byzantium, II in. BC. e.). At the end of XIX century. was established sequence of Plato's dialogues in the four different groups: the Socratic, Platonic, and later sredneplatonicheskih. This division was accepted everywhere, but some insist on the existence of only three teams (Socratic dialogues, dialogues middle period and late period). The first group belong: Ion, Hippias Smaller, Greater Hippias, Harmid, Lahet, Fox, Evtifron, Apology, Crito, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno, second: Phaedo, Pir, Phaedrus, Cratylus, Euthydemus, Theaetetus, Parmenides, State ( Politeia, book. II-X); the third: Sophist, politician, Fileb, Timaeus, Critias, Laws (Nomoi) and Letters. In the early period of dialogues, called Socratic, Socrates plays the main role

. Differentiating ethical concepts together with their interlocutors, . he points, . which definitions should not be taken as true, . divides the arguments of the enemy, . resume attempts, . none of which he is not satisfied, . and eventually leaves the question open,
. (At this later will refer to the skeptics). There are no speeches about the ideas. Dialogues middle period to be the most mature artistically (Pir, Phaedrus, State), distinguished by their clarity of composition and poetic inspiration. P. formulates their principles of his idealism, the spokesman of which he makes Socrates. The works of the later period include the modified doctrine of ideas (the concept of the World Soul - Fileb. Timaeus). Socrates in them belongs to the role of listener, and in the law and he does not appear. Changes the style of Plato's writings, and language is full of particles and phraseological turnovers. All the works of, except the Apology and letters are the dialogues. P. considered the creator of the genre of literary prose, this form seemed most suitable for submission to the dialectical method and inductive conclusions of Socrates and his attempts at definition of concepts, . he has made with students in conversations and discussions on the squares and streets of Athens,

None of the surviving works of P. not explained his idealistic concept of systematically and exhaustively. This confirms himself in a letter VII, in which we find most autobiographical motifs and which is one of the most important sources of knowledge about the teachings of P. Details of P. tells about it in the Symposium, Phaedo, Phaedrus and the State (the famous myth of the cave), and then in the Parmenides, and Timaeus Filebe. His philosophy of finding P. began with the approval, . that existed until the Greek philosophical theories can not be true, . because they contradict each other, for example, . Heraclitus, . relying on evidence of feelings, . proclaimed the principle of global change, . and Parmenides argued, . that being consistently, . forever and still and know that it can only reason, . not feelings, . for they are deceptive,
. By teaching the ideas P. resulted in the road referred to by Socrates, who taught that necessarily need to know for yourself what it is every thing, which states that want to give her definition. In the Socratic ethics definitions, according to AP, was the eternal truth. They are "models" for the world of things. P. extended these features specialty and "exemplary" in all concepts. For example, objects of "fine" can not be beautiful things, because they are volatile and heterogeneous.

Consequently, there must be conceived not directly, a single and unchanging, beautiful in itself "- the idea of beauty. The same is true with all the concepts. They correspond to the eternal and immutable being, that P. called ideas. Since all things are of higher or lower, then the world of ideas, too, have a hierarchy - from the lowest to the more inclusive and high ideas - the idea of goodness, beauty, headed. There are also two of the world: the known senses, transitory and changeable, or gignetichesky (gignomai - am), and the world, knowable by reason, the eternal and unchanging - the ontological (on, ontos - who is) - the things and ideas. Only ideas truly exist, only the same things "are" - they are shadows of ideas. In a letter VII P. carries a certain distinction between: 1) name, 2) definition, 3) a visible way of each thing, and 4) sensory awareness of it, and finally 5) "that the knowable and truly exists" - the idea. Later P. suggests that it is difficult to link the world of ideas with the world of sensible objects. In the Parmenides, he is reflecting on how the immutable and eternal ideas can be translated into perishable and changeable things, and how these things are present in the understanding of ideas. These problems, he tries to solve in the Timaeus and Filebe, which distinguishes between 4 types of things: 1) unlimited (apeiron) - matter, and 2) limit (peras) - ideas, 3) mixed (symmisgomenon) - the world of phenomena, and 4) the reason (aitia ) of the mixture - the mind that lives in my soul. The world, like a man possessed not only the body but the soul.

World soul is, according to the AP, thus the link between the world of ideas and the world of phenomena. Um, which in Timaeus P. called the demiurge, the image of the idea of forming a passive material world of phenomena, which is only a reflection of the world of ideas. Timaeus is one of the most famous and most frequently commented Platonic dialogues. However, it appears that he has drawn sharp criticism from students of the Academy. In VII letter P. said that he never fully explained his teachings. For confirmation, he turned to mathematical speculation. Just as he made two of the world, P. distinguished between two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of the feelings and knowledge of the mind. Using the senses we apprehend the real world around us, the idea is perceived by the mind that P. also calls the "eye of the soul". Sensual and discursive knowledge of P. contrasted the intuitive knowledge, with the culmination of ecstasy (Letter VII). Much attention is paid, he problem of the soul and the justification of its immortality (the famous theory of history). Activity P. the Academy, . which became a school for future politicians and lawyers, . Three of his trip to Syracuse and the two greatest works, . State Laws and suggest, . that one of the main tasks of his life he saw in the work to rectify the state system,
. The theory of the ideal state, he most fully presented in the State and developed in the Laws. The state should serve the ideas of peace and justice.

In accordance with 3 of its basic functions (management, protection and production of material goods), the population is divided into 3 castes: the ruling wise philosophers, soldiers and artisans. A just polity must ensure their harmonious coexistence. Artworks P. distinguish fine style, seasoned composition, lively, full of unexpected twists and stresses dialogue as well as the poetic imagination and the flight of thought. They have become a model of philosophical dialogue, found numerous imitators and had a tremendous impact on both the European philosophy, and in the literature.

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