NIKOLAEV Boris( Archivist)
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Biography NIKOLAEV Boris
In modern Russia this wonderful man is still poorly written, although in 1991. His book on E. Azev "The Story of a traitor", first published in Berlin in 1932, was published in the Soviet mass-circulation, and in 1992. appeared first domestic bibliography of his works and literature about him. In the U.S. it is well known - P. Cohen P. Tucker. L. Heymson, A. and M. Rabinovich dedicated to his memory composed of a collection of articles, published by Indiana University (USA), in which, inter alia, includes articles by K. Christophe and F. Mosley on the life and work of the Russian historian, a selected bibliography of his works. The author of nine books, . articles of scientific and journalistic nature, . critical-bibliographic review, . reviews, . originator and editor of six collections of documents, . dozens of documentary magazine publications (more than 500 titles), . He wrote biographical sketches of K,
. Marx, AN. Potresov, IG. Tsereteli, AA. Vlasov, IS. Konev, N.A. Bulganin, MA. Suslov etc.. In addition, he participated actively in the socio-political life in Russia. Germany, France and the U.S.. All the above applies to Boris Ivanovich Nikolaev (20.10.1887 - 21.02.1966) - Russian Social-Democrat, political activist, journalist, historian, archivist, political scientist. But the main thing in his life were the archives, which are on a half-century.
B.I. Nicholas was born in g. Belebej (Bashkortostan), the son of an Orthodox priest, where he grew more than three brothers and two sisters. In 1898, Mr.. he entered the gymnasium at Samara full board. In my school years Nicholas enthusiastically read A.S. Pushkin N.A. Nekrasov, N.A. Dobrolyubova, DI. Pisarev, NG. Chernyshevskogo, NG. Pomyalovsky, magazines "Niva", "Russian idea", and also studied the works of KA. Timiryazeva, GV. Plekhanov and others. He showed keen interest in history and journalism. The liberal atmosphere of Samara, the range of reading and communication led him to socialist ideas. For belonging to the Revolutionary Youth cup, storage and dissemination of Social-Democratic literature in January 1904,. He was arrested and held in prison for about six months. Coming out. He entered the RSDLP and soon joined its Menshevik trend, remaining true to his ideas before the end of life. He has not received higher education, not even graduated from high school, but was unusually well educated man. Assuming the San revolutionary intellectual "(P. Gul), Nicholas is actively involved in social-democratic movement. Security Branch of Samara, Ufa, Ekaterinoslav, Baku, St. Petersburg followed his propaganda and the practical revolutionary activity, interrupting her arrest. In October 1904,. Nicholas becomes a reporter Samara Courier ", later published in various magazines and newspapers -" Our word "(Baku)," Ray "," A new working paper "(St. Petersburg), etc.. The articles clearly manifested his talent publicist and analytics. One of them - "For the unity of the parliamentary faction", aimed at protecting NS.
Chkheidze, triggered a strong backlash VI. Lenin. During these years clearly revealed yet another facet of talent B. I. Nicholas. While from 1908 to February 1910. in exile in the Arkhangelsk province, he studied agriculture and industry the edge. Leaving there, he regularly sends to the "Proceedings of the Archangel Society for the Study of the Russian North" his essays, which amounted to three books published in Arkhangelsk. Two of them completed in exile near Irkutsk, where he was again expelled from the First World War.
In 1913, Mr.. Nicholas in St. Petersburg is included in the socio-political life of the capital. He became deputy assistant IV of the State Duma and the Secretary of the Menshevik faction, MI. Skobelev, is a member of the editorial board of the New Working paper, led by FI. Dan, who is also head of the Menshevik faction of the Duma, with whom Nicholas tied many years of teamwork and friendship. After the February Revolution B. I. Nicholas returned to Petrograd, and settled in an apartment FI. Dan and his wife L.O. Dan Tsederbaum (sister YU.O. Martov), where he lived came from abroad Martov. Nicholas was elected a member of the CEC, is the editorial board of "working papers" - the central organ of the Mensheviks, a group of Menshevik-Internationalists, led by Martov. He enthusiastically working on the Commission to eliminate the political affairs of the former Police Department under the Ministry of Justice, established in March, 1917. headed in. L. Burtsev, and after its liquidation in June - a special commission to investigate the activities of the former Police Department and its subordinate institutions of the time from 1905 to 1917. at the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry to investigate the illegal actions of ex-officio ministers, the chief superintendent and other senior officials, headed by P.E. Shchegolev. As Commissioner VTsIK he did much to preserve the archive of the Police Department. October 28, 1917, after the Bolshevik seizure of power.
Nicholas, referring to the decision of his party, said the refusal of the mandate of the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee, which guarantees him support in this matter. He proceeds to examine the socio-political history of Russia and remains true to its subject for half a century. In his hands were some secret documents from the archives of the Police Department about the RV. Malinovsky, speculated Kamenev, Bukharin and his own that member RSDLP, MP IV State Duma was also a secret member of the Tsarist secret police, which he wrote a long article "Case Malinowski". Materials of this archive form the basis of many documentaries and publications prepared by him for a comeback in July, 1917. magazine "Past". Analyzing the documents from the archives of the Police Department, he found 46 letters of the People, the participants attempt on the king March 1, 1881, Mr.. The most interesting letters aq. Mikhailov, AI. Barannikova and M.V. Teterka revealing their inner world, first published in an issue of the journal under the expressive title - "Cemetery of letters". Ibid Nikolaev printed, and documents the execution Pervomartovtsi N.E. Sukhanov, "Draft Program of the Russian Social Democrats and other materials Blagoyev circle, documents of the Police Department of LN. Tolstoy and the history of the first arrest M. Gorky in 1889. the comments of the writer, whom he met in 1917. However P.E. Shchegolev he publishes "work" the official St. Petersburg Police Department P.S. Statkovskogo on the activities of the capital city-tion of the secret police in 1895-1901 he.
In the "Past" is regularly published and it reviews the literature on the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia, who have made a significant contribution to the national historiography. For VG. Korolenko Nicholas prepared a review of the case, instigated in the Police Department on Sept. 27, 1897, Mr.. on a tip-off, accusing the liberal magazine "Russian Wealth" in the social-democratic orientation. When the reform of archival work in Russia, Nicholas participated in the drafting of a General Directorate archival profession, and then D.B. Ryazanov invites him to the post of inspector Glavarhiva. From 1919 to February 1921. Nicholas led the Moscow Historical-Revolutionary archive. It sought the state archives, rescues abandoned archives; them, in particular, was found personal archives of the Minister of Internal Affairs AE. Timasheff. Nicholas has worked with the Military-Historical Commission, established in August 1918. to identify and collect documents Russia's army, and from August 1919 - Red Army documents.
B.I. Nicholas did not leave, and political activities as a member of the Central Committee of the Menshevik Party (1920). On behalf of his party he had in 1918-1919. traveled to Siberia to study the situation in the region, visited the Siberian archives. Sports Archives Offices of the Governors-General of the Steppe Region of Eastern Siberia and wrote essays on the presence of the Decembrists C. Volkonskogo, E. Obolensky, C. Trubeckogo in Irkutsk, at the Alexander and Nicholas plants in 1827-1829 he. Most of them are published in the Irkutsk newspaper "New Siberia", as well as in the "notes Siberian (Krasnoyarsk) (1919. 3). The same theme is the essay "The responses of events in 1825, Mr.. in Siberia, published by Cultural and Educational Union of the Altai Territory, in his article "The Far Eastern outskirts" (Vladivostok, 1919). In the Irkutsk newspaper "Siberia" and "the Siberian worker" saw the light of Article on the presence of Nicholas Chernyshevsky Vilyuisk and the Irkutsk provocateurs.
As a researcher, he began studying the documents of the Moscow Police Department, is in the assigned archive. Here he was to succeed. He found new documents about Azef, provide a more accurate biography of an anonymous "well-wisher, who suggested in March 1893. Police Department services in the disclosure of the circle of Russian Social-Democrats in Karlsruhe (Germany). Letter Azefs was found by Nikolaev in 1917, Mr.. in two volumes, the correspondence of the Police Department for the years 1883-1902. All documents on the activities of Azev were prepared for publication by Nikolaev, probably for the "Historical Archives", and later used in writing the book "History of a traitor". However, they were published only in 1921. in a book published and edited by Glavarhivom "Historical Archives" shortly after the close of the last. In the column "From the notebook archives, see 4 sets of documents, compiled by Nikolaev on the basis of the Police Department and the Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry. This is - already mentioned Azefs correspondence with the Department of Police, as well as the letter head flying squad detectives S.P. Mednikova writer I.F. Manusevichu-Manuilova of P.A. Stolypin, VN.
Kokovtsev Nicholas II and correspondence Foreign Minister SD. Sazonov Minister
Interior N.A. Maklakov (1914). The book was published, when Nicholas was in Butyrskaya, the Cheka arrested together with other members RSDLP. As a result of the arrest were not realized, many creative ideas Nikolaev, and archive management was entrusted to other. They were links in a chain, thrown on the unwanted leaders Archive Service. Thus, in the autumn of 1920,. removed from the leadership Glavarhivom Ryazanov, and was replaced by MN. Pokrovsky, who saw a backup job purely Marxist.
Moscow archives under the control in. V. Maksakova. On the basis of historical-revolutionary Moscow archive in September 1920. III created the Department of State Archives of the RSFSR, which transferred all material pre-revolutionary institutions Inquiries. It was a kind of successor III offices with. e. and. in. Office. Conceived in 1921. and fully implemented in 1926. concentration in one place all the materials political investigation pursued far-reaching. At this drew the attention and Nicholas, who in a letter Bourtzev December 10, 1925, Mr.. reported that the GPU and Istpart undertook "historic task" - are lists of all persons who had ever relevant to the SRs and Mensheviks. All ever such case involved "being investigated" about their present relationship, etc., then their cause in the GPU and require subscription. In case of refusal are the expulsion of persons who had left even the most - almost gone before the revolution, the devil knows what! Go to the link for what has just been in it 15-20 years ago on the Menshevik and Social-p. Affairs?. Former head of the Moscow Historical Archive revolutionary Menshevik Nikolaev Bolsheviks found a place in the reorganization only Butyrskaya. And the reason for this Maksakov presented with the utmost frankness: "The great interest shown to these funds (political investigation .- In. K.) and historians of the revolutionary movement, many of whom were representatives of the petty-bourgeois parties - the Socialist-Revolutionaries, the Mensheviks and t. In the struggle for the salvation of Nicholas and his colleagues have joined Ryazanov, and probably AI. Rykov (in Rykov's sister married a brother Boris Ivanovich - Vladimir; relationship last used in 1988. in the trial of the so-called anti-Soviet "pravotrotskistskogo block"). Yes themselves arrested actively fought for their liberation. After a long hunger strike B.I. Nikolaev, S. Dan, L. Dan and other administrative expulsion has been replaced by expulsion from the country. January 19, 1922, Mr.. the day of departure to Berlin, Boris Ivanovich, referring to Shchegoleva, wrote: "In Germany, I will, of course, need to earn. Can not something a Museum of the revolution? I could establish a great collection of foreign publications - new and old, could put the matter searches emigre archives and pr. Therefore for this I will have enough. But, of course, need money. Is there a museum and wanted to do something? Then I will continue in Berlin to consider themselves to your employee ( "Past". - In. K.).
I think that the reviews of the literature will be white for you to come in handy ". February 11 B. I. Nicholas arrived in Berlin and began a new phase of his life, full of active political, organizational, scientific and journalistic activities. Germany at that time was the largest European center of Russian emigration - 250 thousand. not assimilated by Russian refugees, and Berlin - the focus of the representatives of the educated elite. Here in autumn 1920. lived left Russia Martov, who created the overseas delegation (GS) - the Central Committee of the Mensheviks and abroad, together with P. Abramovich, who founded the central authority ZD RSDLP - magazine "Socialist Herald (1921-1965).
Berlin was the center of Russian culture: here lived and worked in M. Bitter 3. Grzhebin, P. Gul, A. Yashchenko, founded in 1921. critical-bibliographical journal "Russian book" transformed into "New Russian book". The magazine began to cooperate B.I. Nicholas. Later he became a regular contributor, then a member of the editorial board of Socialist Herald, which ceased to exist with the death of Nicola EVSK. For publication of the magazine, which laid the methodological foundations of science, which later would be called "Sovietology" vigilant of the Cheka - the NKVD, his constant reader was Stalin. In February or March 1922. Nicholas went to a sanatorium near Berlin to M. Gorky and invited him to participate in the drafting of the initiative based on its historical and revolutionary journal "Annals of the revolution". In the editorial board, which planned to publish material on the February and October Revolutions, entered YU.O. Martov, H. Sukhanov, B.I. Nicholas, and in the autumn and M. Bitter.
The magazine, according to Nicholas, after "The sole purpose of studying the history of the revolution pan-movements, and gathering material," and therefore not a "bound in the selection of employees by any party political framework". Grzhebin, suggesting to publish a magazine in Berlin, and sell in Russia, wrote that he was ready to "print from Lenin to Shulgin and more to the right, if it is skillfully and accurately (or rather, sincerely)". By the time the first issue - January 15, 1923 - the editorial board remained only Martov and Nicholas, who was preparing to print it virtually. But the first and the last number was due to the collapse of the publishing house Grzhebina, initiated by Moscow. Nicholas acquires rights to publish memoirs of some prominent representatives of Russian emigration, which prints as a supplement to the magazine. In 1922-1923. edited by Nicholas with the participation of Gorky issued notes and diaries P. Axelrod, SW. Martov G. Pokrovsky, H. Rusanov, IN. Chernoff. N. Sukhanov (7 tons), C. Mstislavsky, M. Margulies (3 tons), in. Voitinsky (2 t.). He also had the right to publish the second volume of memoirs Martov, Rusanov, Axelrod. Later he was trying to bring books to a wide range of Soviet readers suggested that H. S. Angarsk, . Director of publishing house "Nedra", . represented the, . however, . overseas interests of the Lenin Institute and maintain regular communication with Nikolaev, . buy from him, everyone gathered and is on the stock volume of memoirs or individual books of the series, along with the rights to their subsequent publication, . until the replacement titles and brands Grzhebina,
. O. Martov's "Notes of the Social-Democrat" (1924). In Berlin, Nicholas again "dipped" in the archival world. Here in the building of the Board of the SPD was located Russian Social-Democratic archive, based-tion in the early 10-ies Prince I.D. Bebutov and then staying in the care of a medical student gm. Vyazmenskogo, belonged to the Mensheviks. The latter suggested that B. I. Nikolaev take care of the Russian Archives. He agreed, and many years of his life he gave to this archive, which, thanks to his efforts to top the 30-ies became the largest archive of Russian emigration.
In the summer of 1923. Berlin has once again emerged Director of the Institute of Marx and Engels (IME) B.D. Ryazanov, who led the negotiations with the board of the SPD of receiving E. Bernstein's rights to publish the works of Marx and Engels. Ever since 1910. Ryazanov, on the recommendation of a. Bebel began working in the German party archives, led the gathering, processing and publication of the scientific heritage of the classics of scientific socialism in the original languages. In 1917, Mr.. Stuttgart took the first two volumes of articles by Marx and Engels, but in connection with the return Ryazanov home work remained unfinished. And now, thanks to a rapprochement between Russia and Germany, and his personal relations with leaders of the Social-Democratic, he received agreement in principle to rule the SPD to continue the work. For this he needed as a scientific correspondent IME such a professional, as B.I. Nicholas. October 23, 1924, Mr.. SPD board decided to allow Nicholas to work in his party archive in preparation for the publication of the heritage of Marx and Engels and draw as a scientific consultant P. Kampfmeyera. Between Nikolaev as authorized IME and Bernstein as manager of the archive of Marx and Engels, as well as a.
Brown and P. Hilferding as representatives of the Board of the SPD in November signed a formal contract in which Bernstein ceded all his rights to publish the heritage of Marx and Engels, IME also granted the right to buy it in the form of photocopies. In December, Brown, . authorized the Board of the SPD to conduct business on copying documents, . IME informed consent and Nicholas party leadership to implement the plan to publish the complete works of Marx and Engels in their original languages (MEGA), and for permission to start photocopying manuscripts,
. Nicholas, along with Mehringom started first scientific description, organization and cataloging of manuscripts, sending one copy of the inventory in the IME. Here, depending on the plan to publish a copy of materials prioritize. To do this, the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research-tion established a special laboratory, purchased the latest equipment - photostat, produced up to 400 copies in 3 hours. But the manuscripts were tens of thousands of. Within three years, Nicholas regularly shuttled between Berlin and Frankfurt, Frankfurt revising autographs, and back - up, who soon found themselves in Moscow, adding to fund documents of Marx and Engels. At the same time Nicholas spent the identification of manuscripts of Marx and Engels in the Prussian State Archives, make copies, looked through the newspaper files and magazines, to identify their work, the books they enjoyed. Ryazanov detailed instructions about the direction of further search for Nicholas, who already in 1924. received from Bernstein and moved to the archive SPD big part was his archive Engels. In a letter to the IME on November 23, reporting on this, he pointed out that Bernstein, however, refused to hand over the manuscripts of two major works of Engels and 6 letters addressed to the publisher P. Fischer, securities that, in their case of censorship cuts, in a foreword to "The Class Struggles in France". In most of Bernstein's personal archive, to which he admitted no one, he found the letter P. B. Axelrod, D. V. Plekhanov P. B. Struve etc.. In July 1925. Nicholas traveled to Vienna and brought out the manuscript of Marx and Engels left Ryazanov at Adler in 1917. for repatriation.
Among them were 10 notebooks with mathematical manuscripts of Marx, the correspondence of Marx and Engels' time I International and others. By the beginning of the 30-ies Nicholas - one of the best experts on the heritage of Marx and Engels. Through his hands passed all of their manuscripts, copied in Germany for the IME, some of them prepared them for printing. He knew the biography of Marx and created with O. Maenhenom-Helfom book "Karl and Jenny Marx: his life" (Berlin, 1933. It. lang.), then the book entitled "Karl Marx: Man and Fighter (London, 1936. In English. yaz.).
An enormous research work conducted by Nicholas Studies Library of Marx and Engels made a full directory, indicating the pages of books, which have their marginalia. As science correspondent IME Nikolaev is also entrusted with INS-mother copies of manuscripts, . acquire archives, . library or individual titles at the figures in the Russian Social-Democratic Movement, . were abroad, . European Social-Democrats, . Scientists,
. He was well known in Europe, which helped to solve these problems. Well-known Russian politicians, their relatives, need for funds, scholars and collectors have offered him their archives, individual documents, books, whole libraries. He was a frequent visitor to the largest antique firms. Nicholas purchased and sent to Moscow letter M. Bakunin in. Zasulich, D. Plekhanov archive Azefs for 1908-1918 gg., A unique collec-tion of manuscripts (including F. Engels), and a library of 1200 books M. Stirner with materials about him, gathered near 30 years in England, historian J. MacKay, materials on the history of the French Revolution end of the XVIII. etc.. Among those who offered him the archival documents, was E. Laths, who worked previously in the archives of the SPD and stole thence the manuscript of Marx and Engels. Thanks Nikolaev they were copied and sent to Moscow. As the custodian of Russian archive B.I. Nicholas replenish it with new instruments, led to the search for materials published in Moscow D. Ryazanov and in.
Ter-Vaganyan collected works of Mr.. V. Plekhanov (they drafted comments to a number of volumes), for the works of Axelrod, Zasulich, as well as for the Lenin Institute. The papers he found Potresov notebooks with records of meetings of the II Party Congress, which allowed for complete publication of its protocols. In December 1926. he received an offer to purchase the archive organizer Capri school N.E. Vilonov request: "Tell us interested in it?". In this context, it is clear the success of travel H. Burenina in Sweden in 1928. for these documents. Nicholas was obsessed with finding new documents of Marx and Engels, the material on the socio-political history of Russia in general and the history of social democracy in particular. But this was not an end in itself. He was anxious to get to know them a wide readership steep, especially at home. Research also gave him the opportunity to earn a living, to replenish his personal archive and library. Here pertinent subjects, previously not seen in the Soviet literature. There are questions of copyright and the rights of the author's publisher or the owners of the documents issued. Working in the archives of the Germanic. Nicholas was guided by the laws of this country, . which read, . that "a person, . having found through archival dig this or that thing, . if this thing is not published with the appropriate lien rights, . has the same copyrights, . as if it were the author of ",
. In entering into agreements with the Soviet publishers to release compilations of documents, it will necessarily be made expressly point position that the right to publish material belongs to the authors, owners or their heirs.
When signing a contract with the Angarsk, representing, as already mentioned, the interests of the Lenin Institute, in addition, but with unfailing observance of the aforementioned item, provided for the transfer of the original document in the archives of the Institute. Nicholas believed that the author published a document must pay a fee. And he achieved this, defended this right when it violated Soviet side. In letters to Nicholas Angarsk often sounded requirement to pay royalties Axelrod Potresov, sister Martov for publication of their letters in the collections of the Lenin and other publications, and prepared himself for it to print documents. Part of the money he regularly passed on to relatives who remained in Moscow, especially mothers. In 1924-1930 he. in Moscow, as already mentioned, published four collections of documents on the history of Russian Social-Democrats and two in Berlin. As they are based on previously unknown documents. In 1923, Mr.. Nikolaev managed to persuade Axelrod to move from Zurich to Berlin its entire archive. Analyzing it, along with the owner, he found a letter from Marx in. Zasulich on March 8, 1881, which Axelrod had first seen together with Nikolaev, exposing the package left by his Zasulich spring 1884. With the consent of Axelrod and Dan Nicholas prepared on the basis of the above-mentioned archives for the Berlin publishers ment "Russian Revolutionary Archive" in two volumes on the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia in 1881-1916 gg.. released in the light under the editorship of Dan. L. Dan and most Voitinsky Nicholas. It included a letter provided by Axelrod. and letters received from the Lenin Institute in exchange for a letter of Lenin Axelrod.
In 1928-1930 he. Moscow has issued two volumes of a collection of documents on the history of the social-democratic movement in Russia in 1885-1914 he. One of them, fully trained Nikolaev, contains reports of committees Iskra II Congress RSDLP. Both volumes were published under the editorship of Angarsk, Lepeshinskiy and most of the originator. For the first time in a scientific revolution introduced a large set of documents reflecting the establishment of the "Emancipation of Labor", RSDLP and its activities since the end of XIX century. to 1916. The book "Correspondence S. Martov and P.B. Axelrod's "first way to publish a facsimile letter to. Marx. Zasulich ways of development of Russia and the communal land tenure. They complement the publication of correspondence between Lenin and the Social-democratic organizations in Russia, carried out in the second half of the 20-ies of the Lenin Institute, which included the individual letters, found by Nikolaev. In June 1924. Nicholas, along with P.A. Berlin, acting on behalf of copyright owners - Axelrod and R.G. Plekhanov, Angarsk contract concluded with the publication of two volumes of correspondence Plekhanov and Axelrod for years 1885-1909. In the shortest possible time, work was undertaken to prepare the collection and implemented at a high scientific level of its publication. Many sources, found by Nikolaev in the archives, published in foreign and domestic publications such as' penal servitude and exile, "Annals of Marxism" and "Archive To. Marx and F. Engels, "" Lenin Miscellany "and others. They first saw the light of letters in. Zasulich, A. Herzen, P. Kropotkin, P. Lavrov, M. Sand poem. Turgenev etc.. With the publication of collections of documents in the USSR Nicholas defended his vision of their composition and content, the right to be scientific editor.
In response to the gain in the USSR in the late 20-ies of political control over the scientific sector, he demanded that the publishers are not prepared to subject them to collections of the Political and ideological censorship. He rejected the publishing house "An international book" to check the quality of published documents to print-ing through their comparison with the originals. Strengthening ideological elements in the preface, the scientists warn, would also lead to a denial of political leaders in Europe to submit their papers for publication in the USSR. Specifically, . Nicholas pointed, . Adler said, . it will provide documents on the history of the II International, only in the case, . unless they are accompanied with their publication comments, . against any parties or individuals, . enters into the II International,
. This warning was timely, as Stalin declared that "the current social-democracy is an ideological pillar of capitalism," and "he. Adlers and Bauers, Wels and Levy, Longuet and Blum "are social-traitors. Moscow's position has led to the withdrawal of contacts with foreign owners of archives. SPD Board terminates the use of the party archives, given that the publication of works of Marx and Engels in the USSR, accompanied by "anti-Social-democratic prefaces and commentaries". Nikolaev was forbidden to work in the German party archive as a representative of IME. Ended a short but very intensive and fruitful phase of cooperation of the Russian historian-archivist with the IME, the Institute of Lenin.
In the Soviet Union at the turn of the 20-30-ies formed a totalitarian system. Independent before IME placed under control of the party, and in April 1931. eliminated. No cases have turned out and B.I. Nicholas, which stopped printing in the USSR, and in February 1932. deprived of his Soviet citizenship. Nevertheless, his numerous publications in the Soviet publications have not lost their scientific value and today. "I, of course - he wrote Nicholas - had to contend with censorship, but I always wrote only what was right, and never wrote a single sentence that would include elements of the glorification of dictatorship" in 1933. with the advent of Hitler to power almost all the Russian emigres fled Berlin. Nicholas remained. Stayed to save the Russian Archives. At meetings ZD RSDLP has been debated rescue plan for the archive and library when it. Initially adopted a proposal to transfer all materials Nikolayev in the Prussian State Archives, whose director, however, not wanting trouble, refused to accept documents.
Nicholas pending a final decision on the fate of the archive with the risk of his life began to make the most valuable materials and transport them to Paris. Great help in that he had a party colleagues T.I. Vulikh, IG. Tsereteli and his wife п?.п?. Burgin, who took possession of a parcel that came to Paris via Prague, where they were shipped by diplomatic pouch adviser to the Czechoslovak embassy-tion Hoffman. Nicholas turned to the rule of the SPD with the proposal to remove Russian archive and archive the party abroad. As a result of negotiations with O. Wels and P. Hertz Nikolaev initially banned from the building to make any material party archives, but then Wels personally instructed not an obstacle to his work-vat. One of the leaders of the French Communist Party in. K. Suvorin proposed to carry Russian archive in Paris. With the support of the Minister of Culture A. de Monzie developed a plan: to sell its National Library, which assumed the costs of its removal from Berlin. Nicholas took the plan of legal export of Russian archive as if it were bought by France, in order to avoid tensions through diplomatic channels. French Ambassador in Berlin A. Francois-Poncet and cultural attache Vaytts helped him to carry. According to Nicholas, 27 or 28 April, he met with Vayttsem and discussed all the details of the export file. Shortly before this Wels, on behalf of board SPD turned to the Russian archivist with the request to take in Paris and the German party archives. April 29 at a meeting on. Wels, P. Hertz and A. Nicholas Vogel received full authority to implement the plan export records. He / Party Archive and. Hinrihsenu was asked to give the head of Russian archive all the materials that they will be selected.
Nicholas first took all the manuscripts and printed materials of Marx and Engels, remaining after their removal in March-April in Copenhagen, I archive International, documents Bebel, Bernstein, and an archive of the SPD. He was helped by Hinrichs, P. Kampfmeyer, P. Sighting. May 8, 1933, Mr.. car laden with boxes of documents left out of the gate of the building on Lindenshtrasse, 3 and headed Rutelsberg (a suburb of Berlin). "I do not remember - wrote Nicholas - now the exact number of boxes, bales and bags of different materials, I only know that from Berlin, I then sent two large yellow. dor. wagon, . fully stuffed materials, . with the materials of the German party archives, . carefully packed in small packages (there were over one hundred), . were laid inside the boxes with Russian archive materials, . so, . to Hitler's control, . if it was held, . find these German materials could only be the case, . if the Nazis began to clean out the bottom of boxes with Russian materials ... ",
. A May 11 in the building board of the SPD, which until then were the documents, burst storm troopers. Archive at this time was on his way to Paris, where he was soon placed in two rooms specifically exempted by order of the Director of the National Library F. Ken. Arrived in Paris and curator of Russian archive. He worked at the Institute of Historical Research and at the same time was the official representative of the International Institute of Social History (IISH), continued to search for new documents.
By Exported Nikolayevsky archives have expressed interest in Moscow. In the summer of 1933. French newspapers reported on the upcoming supposedly historically-mi exchange of documents between the USSR and France. Moscow Institute of precisely Marx - Engels - Lenin (Institute of Marxism), the CC, CPSU (b), was interested primarily the legacy of Marx and Engels, in exchange for documents of Napoleon. But this did not happen, though the Kremlin and not leave the hope to obtain documents of interest. In April 1934. to archive the SPD was interested MISI. I immediately received an offer from the Institute of Marxism buy archive for a considerable amount or take it to the store, leaving the foreign center SPD in Prague "Sopade" larger interest-free loan. Nicholas advises management "Sopade in August 1935. demand for archive 200-250 thousand.
U.S.. In September the board <Sopade "decided not to sell its archive to the Bolsheviks. Learning of this, the head of the Central Party Archives of the Institute of Marxism GA. Tikhomirnov on behalf of the Central Committee came into contact with Nicolaevsky to resume its cooperation with the Institute. Soon ZD RSDLP received from the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) a proposal to start negotiations on the fate of the archives and this has contributed to their representatives - Dana and Nicholas. In February 1936. Politburo of the CPSU (b) adopted a resolution to purchase an archive of the SPD, especially the heritage of Marx and Engels, and sent to Paris a special delegation comprising: NI. Bukharin, director of the Institute of Marxism in. V. Adoratskogo, chairman VOKS AY. Aroseva and GA. Tihomirnova.
Stalin, according to Nicholas, from the very beginning was in opposition to these negotiations, which Adler purposely politicized, including in the composition of the German delegation F. Hilferding, Dana, L. Blum, Modigliani, Pernstofera, as well as expert Nicholas. More than two months were tense-WIDE talks, which ended unsuccessfully. German Social Democrats refused to sell archive. Order from Moscow to cease negotiations came about on April 10. May 19, 1938, Mr.. on behalf of Wels and Vogel signed an agreement for the sale of the Social-Democratic Party of Germany for the International Institute of Social History of the archive, including those located in Copenhagen. B. I. Nicholas worked there for about 10 years and have risked their lives saved from destruction by the Nazis archive. In Paris for the Nikolaev and the Russian archive continued to monitor the agents of the OGPU-NKVD. They are interested in Russian archives contact with Trotsky's son L. Sedov and by Trotsky, to whom Nicholas assisted. "I take this opportunity - Trotsky wrote to his son - to thank through your mediation B. I. Nicholas, for his extensive and serious concerns. With some of them I can not, however, agree ... In any case, observations BN, without doubt, help me to clarify the text (biography of Lenin. - In. K) for all other publications. Once again I thank him ".
On the eve of deportation in 1936. from Norway to Mexico, Trotsky handed over part of its archive Nikolaev. However, in the night of 6 to 7 November of the Paris Branch of the IISH, which kept this archive, was kidnapped by agents of the NKVD of the material. As did. Deutscher and H. A. Vasetsky, burglars took only newspaper clippings and "relatively unimportant Paper. Sam Nicholas explained the theft of the fact that Stalin needed the documents for the intended process of Bukharin - Rykov and Bukharin concrete evidence links with the Trotskyists abroad. This probably explains the fact that the archivist destroyed at the end of 1936. recording his conversations with Bukharin, who led for two months. They formed the basis for his article "How to Moscow was prepared by the process?". Is now known that the missing part of the archives containing the most valuable manuscripts of articles, letters, etc.. Among them, in particular, 103 Trotsky's letter - his correspondence with the American writer M. Eastman and his wife, EV. Krylenko for the 1929-1933. November 7 NKVD agent Zborivskyi reported to Moscow about a successful operation, as well as photography and the second part of Trotsky's archives, kept by L. Sedov. Along with concerns for the conservation and replenishment of archival collections, Nicholas appeared as a witness, along with P.N. Miliukov IN. L. Burtsev and others on Vernskom during 1934-1935,. To recognize the famous forgery of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and on the basis of this testimony wrote the article "Modern anti-Semitism and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion". In 1940. in connection with the threat of seizure by the fascists in Paris Nicholas ferried archival collection in The Hague and the U.S. (in which he rendered great assistance to the U.S. ambassador in France have. Bullitt), and part buried in the outskirts of the French capital. (After the war he returned to Paris and dug up the suitcase full of manuscripts). During the occupation of Paris by fascist troops, along with other cultural objects seized by a Russian archive and library. Special Detachment A. Rosenberg did not match any of the Nikolayev, nor most of the archive, withdrew its rich library and the remaining manuscripts, placing them in the Institute of Judaism and Bolshevism in Frankfurt, and then they disappeared. In the United States Nicholas arrived in November 1940, where he continued his scientific and journalistic and political activities.
He created the League of the struggle for people's freedom, publishes the magazines "Abroad", "The forthcoming Russia". In 1947, Mr.. out causing great public resonance book, opened the history of the Gulag. In a series of well-known publisher Prager "Russian history and world communism" appeared a collection of selected works with a foreword by historian Nicholas J. Kennan, former U.S. Ambassador to the USSR. He played an important role in understanding the American and European scientists behind the scenes power in the CCCP. In New York, Nicholas was known as a director of the American working-class archive and research institute. Since the late 50-ies he has been actively involved in research projects on the history of the Menshevik-led L. Heymsona, wrote essays, reminiscences of stories RSDLP 1917-1921 gg., Selects archival documents. In addition, closely following the publications of the Soviet Archeology.
Reviewing compilations issued IML, he concludes that the institution is "the false center". B.I. Nicholas continues to prepare the publication of new documents, collected in Europe and the U.S.. But, as before, he did not publish the documents that were causing his distrust. This applies, for example, documents about provocateur Stalin, whom he knew personally, Nicholas. He closely followed his ascent to political Olympus. "To me he seems a man with great will, - wrote a scientist M.
Aldanov in October 1927, - good judge of people and were able to subjugate them, playing mostly not on the good side of nature. To become a great politician, he lacks the broad-mindedness and flexibility in a large, flexibility in small, ability to maneuver among the people with him, I think there are ". In 1945, Mr.. Nicholas appeared in papers provocateur Stalin, now widely used in the sensational view. But, according to his testimony, he knew about them even with the 30-ies, when he was asked to print them, accompanied by relevant comments. "I refused, - he wrote Nicholas H. Valentinov April 20, 1956 - stating that "Stalin was an agent provocateur, but the document - a fake and only compromise the exposure. The same thinking, and now "". And then says even more explicit: "On paper, put into circulation Don Levin, ten miles away is a falsehood that must simply be blind or a fool to miss it". For nearly forty years, Nicholas collecting documents on the history of Russian Freemasonry, . resulting concluded the existence of more than 20 boxes, . in which "included the Bolsheviks, . through them, the Masons gave Lenin (in 1914) "Already in the early 30's he proposes to publish, . but the letter M,
. Aldanov January 23, 1931, Mr.. observes: "... Perhaps it is too early: many live in Russia, but there is now GPU with particular care and interest in Freemasonry may try to seek immediate threads from past to present". And only in early 1960. said: "On the Russian Freemasonry I have the most interesting material - testimony Galyzerna, Chkheidze, Gegechkori (members of the Supreme Council of Russian lodges), memories book.
Bebutov (founder) and several other. On the whole volume: the statute, the history of both "Convent" history "lull" box Margulies - Bebutov (suspected of provocation) and pr. ... There are materials on the negotiations, which bebut in 1909. led by Plekhanov, SRs and t. d. Many parts are still missing, and I waited with the publication, hoping to get ... Unfortunately we do not get - have to publish so ". But his strength had been undermined: "My performance has fallen heavily," - said he was Aug. 31, 1963, Mr.. Understanding this. Nicholas sends the bulk of the archive, the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace and becomes his guardian. He died without seeing his latest work - a bibliographic index of "Social Democratic Menshevik Literature" (Stanford. 1968), compiled them together with п?.п?. Burgin (wife of Nicholas), which treated and will continue to apply historians, drawing on valuable information. Life B.I. Nicholas - a vivid example of service archives and history. "Burning passion Boris Ivanovich, - wrote in his obituary P. Gul - was arhivizm, picking up papers.
|Alexei for NIKOLAEV Boris