Pomortsev Mikhail Mikhailovich( Russian inventor in the field of missile technology, aerologist, Major-General)
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Biography Pomortsev Mikhail Mikhailovich
Pomortsev Mikhail Mikhailovich (1851-1916), Russian inventor in the field of missile technology, aerologist, Major-General. He graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery School in St. Petersburg (1871) and the General Staff Academy (1878). From 1881 he taught at the Military Engineering Academy, from 1885 in the Artillery School in St. Petersburg Since 1885, organized ascents in balloons for the study of atmospheric phenomena, process the results of several dozen such flights. To increase the range and accuracy of missiles in the fall of the 1902-05 proposed and tested about 20 types of bearing and stabilizing surfaces (stabilizers, wings, etc.). In 1905, proposed a missile with the engine running on compressed air. In 1907, explored the relationship of pressure in the chamber, the rate of discharge of gases, the size of the missile emptiness, means stuffing gunpowder in the barrel, etc.. In 1908, his proposed stabilizer has an increased range missiles weighing 10-12 kg up to 8-9 km. Invented by a number of air navigation, etc.. devices. Name Pomortseva named a crater on the Moon.
Years of life
1851, July 12 - in the village of Nizhny Novgorod province Vasilievism boy was born, his parents named Mikhail. His father, Mikhail Yakovlevich Pomortsev, an artillery officer, soon retired with the rank of lieutenant and served in the zemstvo. Born Michael was the eldest son in the family. The family lived in a village without a break. Mother, Anne Levinton, intelligent and educated woman, a beneficial effect on child development.
The family lived very modestly, to the small earnings of his father. Children up to twelve years, Michael holds in the village. Intelligent, inquisitive and lively boy enjoys full freedom. He has a great imagination and comes up with exciting games and exercises for peers.
In these circumstances, Michael soon develop courage, determination, hard work and constant striving for knowledge.
1863 - 12-year-old Michael is defined in the military school (boarding school for the type of the Cadet Corps) in Nizhny Novgorod. In ceme no other means to give him an education. Over time, and two other children in the family Pomortseva were identified in the closure of educational institutions.
1868 - Michael graduated high school and entered the Petersburg Artillery School. In the same year die hard bolevshy recent years, father. Michael does not feel any attraction to military service. Later, he recalled bitterly that only a lack of material resources forced him to go into military service.
And in high school and college Pomortsev trying to get as more thorough knowledge. He works hard, showing curiosity of mind and deep interest in the studied case.
1871 - Pomortsev finishes school and gets assigned to the Artillery Brigade, stationed in Western Ukraine. Military service is still oppresses him. It is alien to dull life of the officers, their limited interests. Therefore, he served in the artillery parts, resumes samomtoyatelnye classes, specializing in military topography.
1873 - Pomortsev withstand examination and sent to St. Petersburg on a one-year postgraduate courses at the Artillery Academy. The courses, he worked very hard and seriously damages health. After the course, on the recommendation of military-medical commission, he napravletsya in the artillery unit in Bessarabia. There he is receiving special treatment of climate. Pomortsev continued his studies topography and geodesy.
1875 - trip to the 6-month postgraduate courses in geodesy at the General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg.
1875, summer - finishing the courses, Pomortsev returned to his unit in Bessarabia. There he meets 18-year-old Stephanie Lukinichna Brzhostovskoy.
1875 - Pomortsev and Brzhostovskaya form a family.
1876 - birth of a son, Vladimir.
1876, end - Pomortsev translated in 4-th Reserve Artillery Brigade. Now he has become more time to lessons samoctoyatelnyh. He was firmly determined to continue their education and to link their lives to science.
1877 - Pomortsev adopted in senior class of a geodesic Branch of the Academy of General Staff.
1878 - Pomortsev finishes Academy and seconded to the Main Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo. The range of his interests increasingly includes higher surveying, and then the weather.
Scientific world Petersburg already knows Pomortseva, his outstanding theoretical training and attraction to scientific activities. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev invited him to participate in the work of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society.
1880 - after finishing work at Pulkovo, Pomortsev sent to the Chief Ordnance Department in St. Petersburg. He decides to completely give in scientific activities, not thinking about a career in general and the military, in particular.
At this time Pomortseva reputation in the eyes of the authorities severely shaken. His views inconsonant with the sentiments of the officers of the tsarist army. He does not hide his dislike for the musty, limited atmosphere that reigned in this environment. All this leads to unfavorable appraisal Pomortseva as an officer and inhibits its promotion.
1880 December - created aeronautic division (VII) in the Russian Technical Society. In the work of this department Pomortsev will continue a very active part.
1881 - this year Pomortsev teaches topography and surveying at the time courses in the Engineering Academy.
1882 - Pomortsev leaves military service. He received appointment as assistant director of the trainees (P, approximately corresponding to the present deputy chief of training and drill parts) in the Military Medical Academy, the same place in St. Petersburg. In this position, and then as a chief Pomortsev working for seventeen years. It is to this period are his most important research and hard work in the field of meteorology and aeronautics.
Scientific activities Pomortseva began in the Pulkovo Observatory. The first scientific works are devoted to research in the field of electricity, but published only in the years 1884-85 in the Proceedings of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society. Subsequently, within three years, appeared several works Pomortseva - on the theory of military range finders, in particular, on the theory and design rangefinder with a vertical base, invented by Pomortseva.
1884 - Pomortsev elected a member of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society.
1885 - the first observation of phenomena in the free atmosphere. While the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere directly depended on the development of aeronautics, as the only means of observation in the free atmosphere can be tethered or free balloons. But ballooning in Russia grew slowly, . because the tsarist government for several decades, it felt empty and harmful fun (more April 4, 1786 was a decree of Empress Catherine II on Prohibitions "to shoot the balls in the prevention of fire incidents and accidents adventures,
. In the same year, followed by a refusal to French aeronaut Blanchard in public flights in Russia: "... in Russia is not involved in this or other similar aeromaniey, but all experience thereof, like a futile and unnecessary, we very difficult "). Only in 1804 took the first flight in Russia, organized by Academician YA.D. Zakharov.
1885 - in the War Department organized the fortress to air swimming part (at the fortresses of Warsaw, Ossovetskoy and others). In St. Petersburg, a training aeronautic park with the officers' school with him. Pomortsev invited to the school teacher of Meteorology. Subsequently, it came from a number of major meteorologists: Kalitin NN, Trinity SI, Molchanov PA, Friedman AA. other.
It was Russia's first aeronautics organization have sufficient material means. The initiative of MA. Rykacheva, DI. Mendeleev, MM. Pomortseva begin research flights.
Thus, training aeronautic park became a base for scientific research of the atmosphere.
1885 - c this year Pomortsev reading meteorology course at the St. Petersburg school aeronautical.
1885 - 1907 - Pomortsev - private teacher of the topography of the Artillery School.
1888 - Pomortsev elected a member of the Russian Geographical Society.
1889 - Book Pomortseva "Essay on the theory of predicting the weather (synoptic meteorology)". The first Russian leadership in this area. The author broke his work into six chapters:
Chapter 1. Description of the historical development of meteorology in general, highlighted the history of the development of meteorology in Russia.
Chapter 2. Description of the technical means used in meteorology.
Chapter 3. Basic information on climatology.
Chapter 4,5. Description of major pressure systems.
Chapter 6. Weather forecasting.
The book was very approvingly met authoritative scientific community.
Pomortsev extends observations in the free atmosphere. Climbs balloons are manufactured in St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Modlin, Ossovtse, Ivan-city.
1891 - Pomortsev elected among the founding members of the Russian Astronomical Society.
1891 - initiated Pomortseva aeronautic department of the Russian Technical Society holds three special pilot balloon flight with the program monitor its movement, developed Pomortseva.
1891 - Pomortsev collects observations forty flights in balloons and released the book "Scientific results of our 40 air travel, committed in Russia". It identifies the vertical gradients of the main No account yet? (Temperature, humidity, wind). As is now known, the values of these gradients - a more robust performance than the average values of the quantities themselves. Besides Pomortsev tried to get the values of gradients for different states of the atmosphere, we introduce the features of the distribution of atmospheric pressure.
The work was highly appreciated by his contemporaries.
1892 - for this work Pomortseva awarded the Russian Technical Society and the Gold Medal of the Russian Geographical Society. The book was translated into English, German and French. Pomortsev elected a member of the Russian Technical Society.
1892-93 - talks Pomortseva Professor Assmanom, chairman of the Berlin balloon society to organize simultaneous scientific ascents in balloons in Russia and Western Europe. The negotiations also involved the Austrians and the French, but the ups are carried out by Russian and German:
. 1894 - number of concurrent booms balloons:
. - July 23 - St. Petersburg, Berlin
. - July 28 - St. Petersburg, Berlin
. - September 19 - St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Ossovets, Berlin.
. In all ascents made from St. Petersburg, Pomortsev involved personally
. The results of three simultaneous operations, covers a larger area, gave a valuable material for the study of air currents in their dependence on the distribution of atmospheric pressure.
To determine the air currents at different altitudes Pomortsev also uses free balloons. For this purpose it was necessary during the flight continuously record the height and the way the balloon. This can be done only with the Earth. Only with long-range flights from the balloon surface were observed items and passage of time. This led to large errors, especially if the items were marked in the navigation map, rare. Pomortsev creates the world's first air navigation devices which enabled the on-board measurement.
The first device Pomortseva allowed to determine the direction and speed of the balloon. At a certain altitude and the measured time of passage of the object surface between the two strands eyepiece counted azimuth direction of the balloon, . then calculated the angular velocity, . reduced to the zenith of the observation point, . then - linear velocity of the balloon,
The second device Pomortseva allowed to determine the distance to objects located on the earth's surface. As device counted the apparent angle object in the optical tube. The distance calculated from geometric constructions on certain altitude balloon.
As the creator of the world's first navigational aids, Pomortsev can rightly be called the founder of Air Navigation.
As a result of observing the movement of clouds Pomortsev constructs a device for determining the direction and angular velocity of their movement. The device consisted of a theodolite with the magnetic needle and a sundial Flush. Later takme devices are called Nephoscope.
1894-97 - Pomortsev - member of the Russian Technical Society.
1895 - for the creation Nephoscope Pomortsev awarded Kostemerovskogo from the Russian Technical Society
. 1894-95 - Article Pomortseva in Engineering magazine: "The integration of the differential equations of motion of the free air ball", . "Tethered balloon", . "Studies on the mechanical conditions of equilibrium and motion of the free air ball", . "Controllable balloon ',
. In these works fully consider the conditions for free movement and guided balloon propeller thrust in their relationship with atmospheric conditions, . concluded, . that the movement of controlled air balloons and airships will always depend on air currents (subsequently confirmed DI,
. Mendeleev and N.E. Zhukovsky).
Pomortsev goes to research aircraft heavier than air. In their experiments on finding the most aerodynamically advantageous shape airframe Pomortsev explores squared snake Hargrava and planar - - Otto Lilienthal.
1895 - Pomortsev elected Chairman of the balloon department of the Russian Technical Society.
1896 - Creation of the International Commission of scientific ballooning.
1897 - new work Pomortseva - "Study of the atmosphere by balloons". Observations on flights with free balloons could not provide sufficient data, especially for high layers of atmosphere. Therefore Pomortsev organizes ascents balloons (balloons with recorder without rights).
1897 - Two articles Pomortseva - balloons, equipped with automatic recording devices in the application to the study of the atmosphere "and" Research recorder used in the balloons ". In the same period to lift automatic recording devices were used kites and tethered balloons. Pomortsev takes an active part in the creation of methods and organization of such observations, and develops its own design kites, characterized by high stability and load capacity and low tension cable.
1898 - Work Pomortseva "Atmospheric trends and their relation to the distribution of atmospheric pressure on Earth and the nature of the weather".
For flights in balloons Pomortsev conducted a variety of observations of atmospheric electricity, acoustic, optical and other phenomena of interest in issues of Terrestrial Magnetism.
1900 - Work Pomortseva "Absolute determination of the elements of terrestrial magnetism".
1900 - Pomortsev sent to Paris for an international exhibition and is one of the members of the jury. Therefore, his own results presented in this exhibition could not be awarded prizes. Pomortsev receives from the Government of the French Legion of Honor for his scientific work and the devices exhibited in Paris.
1899-01 - Reports in the Russian technical society on the preliminary results of experiments with gliders.
1902 - Medal of the Russian Technical Society for Research in the field of aeronautics.
1902 - Pomortsev departs from activities aerology and proceed to the study of aircraft heavier than air. Termination of practical work in the field Pomortseva aerology was partly due to his health, and most importantly the fact that he was captured by other interests. Of great significance was the fact that aerology by this time had a variety of means to study the atmosphere. Center for Studies of the free atmosphere has become upper-air observatory in Pavlovsk.
Throughout his scientific career in the second half of life Pomortsev devotes problem winning air man. Pomortsev becomes a supporter of the development of aircraft heavier than air.
1902 - initiated Pomortseva artillery department provided funds for the experiments with rockets. He holds them at the St. Petersburg artillery range, in Sevastopol, at the rocket factory in Nikolaev.
1903 - Pomortsev elected trustee Zemstvo public school at home, in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
1904, Marseille - Pomortsev awarded a gold medal for his work in meteorology at the International Exhibition of Hygiene and rescue.
Apart from the immediate work in the field of aeronautics and aerology Pomortsev actively working in related areas:
- Collaboration with Gleb Kotelnikov in the development of parachute.
- Joint research with Ipat'ev and Kurnakov to create a synthetic rubber.
- Work on the different types of impregnating fabrics with a view to achieve gas-tightness.
One day, based on fabric "kerzu and impregnated her on her technique, Pomortsev received an unexpected fabric that is impervious to water but permeable to air. Thus was born the famous "canvas" (the letter "e" eventually changed to "and") - a substitute for leather for shoes.
1905, Liege - samples gazovodonepronitsaemyh tissues impregnated
1906, Milan - on the way Pomortseva, Russia's Ministry of Industry on display at international exhibitions. In Milan Pomortsev receives a gold medal
. Scientific results and achievements Pomortseva become by this time so obvious, . that even his dislike of military service and ongoing conflicts with bosses, . previously prevented his military career (to which he never sought), . no longer an obstacle,
1906 April - Pomortsev made the rank of Major General of Artillery.
1906 - Pomortsev concluded, has not been completed, experiments with rockets. In the same year, he said, because of continuous conflict with the leadership wrote a report on the resignation.
1907 February - retirement with pension. Now he is only concerned with science.
1909 - Pomortsev returned to issues related to the study of the free atmosphere.
1909, March 3 - Report Pomortseva the Russian Geographic Society on the laws of atmospheric circulation and their relation to the synoptics ".
1911, St. Petersburg - an encouraging feedback on the International exhibition for aeronautical ways to create gazovodonepronitsaemyh tissue.
1912 - Articles "The old experiences and current evidence of aviation", "Like-editing system and its application to the device of aircraft". Pomortsev, through the mediation of Zhukovsky, Ryabushinsky receives an invitation to work in an aerodynamic laboratory in Kuchino (now here is TsAGI). Here Pomortsev develops the idea and the original draft of aircraft with a variable angle meeting (the angle of the wings), automatically maintain stability in flight. Pomortsev patents his plane.
1913, St. Petersburg - a small silver medal at Vserossiskoy Hygiene Exhibition.
1913 - Pomortsev awarded a gold badge of the Special Committee on the Strengthening of the navy of Russia for special merits in the field of aeronautics.
1913-14 - in Pomortseva sharply increased heart disease.
1914 - Pomortsev draft report to the plane in the aeronautical department of the Russian Technical Society. Zhukovsky issued a positive expert evaluation. However, the minister of war Russia refuses to leave funds to build a prototype that is deeply resent Pomortseva.
1914 - the last work in the field Pomortseva aerology - Experience in similar events and the gyroscopic motion of the vortex "(" Technique of aeronautics ", N 1 / 1914). Prove some periodicity phenomena in the atmospheric currents, made an attempt to explain the causes of atmospheric vortices.
1916 Summer - Pomortsev works in St. Petersburg one. All the members of his family went to the cottage. Health Pomortseva suddenly deteriorates. He goes for treatment at the Military Medical Academy. The doctor finds a serious condition of the heart, liver, kidney.
1916, 18 June, 18 hours - the strong attacks of breathlessness.
1916, June 19, 4 am - Mikhail Pomortsev died. He is buried at a cemetery in St. Petersburg Okhta.
Bibliography: 1. Minkeldey MA. - Mikhail Pomortsev --
first Russian aerologist ", St. Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat, 1954.
2. Drozdov MI. - Tarpaulin boots and missiles, "Saint-Petersburg,
Neva, N 10/1987 year.