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Osip Mandelstam

( Poet, translator)

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Biography Osip Mandelstam
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Osip Mandelstam (1891 - 1938), poet, translator. Born on January 3 (15 NS) in Warsaw in the family of master-tanners, Deli. A year later the family settled in Pavlovsk, then in 1897 moved to live in Petersburg. Here ends one of the best educational institutions in St. Petersburg - Tenishev Commercial College, . which gave him a strong knowledge in the humanities, . hence began his fascination with poetry, . music, . Theater (Director, School of symbolist poet Vl.Gippius contributed to this interest).,

. In 1907 M. went to Paris, attended lectures at the Sorbonne, met with Gumilev
. Interest in literature, history, philosophy leads him to the University of Heidelberg, where he attended lectures during the year. Short visits happen in St. Petersburg, establishes its first connection with the literary environment: listens to lectures on prosody at the "tower" in B. Ivanov.

. Gold leaf burn
. In the forests of Christmas trees;
. In the bushes toy wolves
. The eyes look terrible.

. Oh, my prophetic sadness
. Oh quiet my freedom
. And dead sky
. Always laughing crystal!

. (1908)

. The literary debut of M. 's place in 1910, when the magazine "Apollo" were printed in its five poems
. During these years, he is fond of ideas and creativity of the Symbolist poets, becomes a frequent visitor Ivanov, a theorist of symbolism, which has gathered talented writers.

. In 1911 Mandelstam comes to the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University, wishing to organize their knowledge
. By this time he is firmly in the literary circles - he belongs to a group acmeists (from the Greek acme - the highest degree of something, . bloom strength), . to organized Gumilev "Guild of Poets, . which vholili Anna Akhmatova, . Gorodetski, . M. Kuzmin and others,
. Mandelstam appears in print, not only with poetry, but also articles on literary topics.

In 1913 published a first book of poems by Osip Mandelstam - "Stone", immediately to the author in a number of important Russian poets. Many advocates of reading his poems in various literary associations.

. In the years pre-October there are new acquaintance: M Tsvetaeva, M. Voloshin, in whose house in the Crimea, M. visited several times.

. In 1918 M. was living then in Moscow, then in Petrograd, then in Tbilisi, where we arrived a short time and then came again and again
. N. Chukovskij wrote: "... he has never been not only no property, but also permanent residency - he led a vagabond life, ... I realized the most striking feature of his - bezbytnost. This was a man who never formed around him no life and living without any way of life. "

1920 were for him the time of intense and varied literary work. Send new collections of poetry - "Tristia" (1922), "Second Book" (1923), "Poems" (1928). He continued to publish articles about literature - a collection of "On Poetry" (1928). Were published two books of prose - the novel "The Noise of Time" (1925) and "Egyptian Stamp" (1928). They went out and several books for children - "Two tram", "Primus" (1925), "Spheres" (1926). Lot of time Mandelstam paid translation work. Perfectly owning French, German and English, he undertook (often to earnings) for the translation of prose writers of modern foreign. With special care attitude toward poetic translations, showing great skill. In 1930, when the open persecution of the poet and printed it increasingly difficult, the translation has remained the outlet, where the poet could save yourself. During these years he has translated dozens of books.

Autumn of 1933 wrote the poem "We live under him not sensing the country ...", for which in May 1934 was arrested

. * * *

. We live under him not sensing the country,
. Our speech ten steps are not heard,
. And where is enough for polrazgovortsa,
. They recall the Kremlin mountaineer.
. His thick fingers like worms, fat,
. And words like pood weights are correct
. Cockroach laugh at his enormous eyes
. And his boot tops gleam.

. And around rabble Tonkosheyev Chiefs
. He plays a half people in services.
. Who whistles who myauchit who whimpers,
. He is one of only babachit and pokes.
. As horseshoe, gives a decree of the decree --
. Who in the groin, someone in the forehead, who in his eyebrow, who in the eyes.
. Whatever punishment he has - then raspberries
. And broad chest Ossetians.

. (November 1933)

. Only the protection of Bukharin mitigated sentence - sent to Cherdyn-on-Kama, where he stayed for two weeks, fell ill in hospital
. Was sent to Voronezh, where he worked in newspapers and magazines, on radio. After the expiration of links back to Moscow, but here he live ban. Lives in Kalinin. Qualified in the sanatorium, leaving his wife in Samatihu, where he was again arrested. Sentence - 5 years in the camps for counterrevolutionary activities. Stage was sent to the Far East. In the transit camp at the Second River (now within the precincts of Vladivostok) December 27, 1938 Osip Mandelstam died in a hospital barrack in the camp.

Shklovsky said about Mandelstam: "This was a man ... strange ... difficult ... pathetic ... and brilliant! "

The wife of the poet Nadezhda Mandelstam, and some tried and tested friends of the poet kept his poems, which in 1960 became possible to publish. We have published all the works of Osip Mandelstam.

Used materials kn.: Russian writers and poets. Brief Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 2000.

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Osip Mandelstam (1891, Warsaw - 1938, a transit camp near Vladivostok) - poet. Genus. domestic merchant tanner. In 1907 he graduated from one of the best Petersburg schools - Tenishev uch-School. I listened to lectures on verbal f-te of the Sorbonne in Paris and Heidelberg University-cho, lived in Germany, Switzerland, Italy. In 1911 - 1917 studied the history and philology are f-Petersburg, Unt. Was fond of poetry, music, theater. He went into the circle of writers-acmeists H. Gumilev, A. Akhmatova, M. Kuzmin and others. 1913 saw the publication of his first book. poem "Stone". Mandelstam traveled extensively, worked in the journal., Translated the. N. Chukovskij recalled: "He has never been not only no property, but also the present residence - he led a vagrant. He came with his wife in a city, lived there for several months at his fans, lovers of poetry until then, until tired, and went to some other place ". M. lot and worked successfully, while maintaining an independent position. The belief in the moral value of art and history need to understand different cultures have allowed M. to write critical prose, and refers to her essay "Conversation about Dante", in order to Mandelstam-cerned to learn Italian. In the late 20's - early. 30-ies. poet-philosopher, M., a gust of time, do not fit into the new reality, remains the same. In 1934 he was arrested for anti-Stalinist poem "We live under him not sensing the country ..." and sent to Cherdyn, and then in Voronezh, where he worked litkonsultantom in theater and on radio. Upon his return from exile in 1938 was arrested again and died in the hospital barracks at Camp. Poems Mandelstam were saved from destruction by his widow N.YA. M., and published in the U.S.. The second edition of the projected four reprints published in 1991 in Moscow.

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