Konovalov Alexander Ivanovich( Fabrikant, a political activist.)
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Biography Konovalov Alexander Ivanovich
Konovalov Alexander Ivanovich (1875, Moscow 1948, New York) - industrialist, politician. Place of the hereditary family of textile manufacturers. He was educated in Physics and Mathematics, Faculty ge Mosk. Zap and vocational-technical school of spinning and weaving in Myulgauzene (Germany). A gifted musician, a pupil of Professor Mosk. Conservatory AI. Siloti, but the interests of the company have a determining influence on career choices. From 1897 he headed the Association of Manufactures "Ivan Konovalov and son" by withdrawing its industry in the number of advanced. Realizing the need for "social peace" for Russia's development. industries, introduced in 1900 at its factory 9-hour day, and built housing, schools, hospitals, shelter, etc.. In 1905, Konovalov became chairman of the Kostroma Committee of Trade and Manufactures, and took an active part in political life: he was among the organizers of Commerce and Industry Party, founded in 1905 for election in 1 State. Duma. In Feb.. 1911 initiative Konovalova gas. Rus. Gazette published a letter of protest against the repressive policies of the tsarist administration to Moscow. un-tu. In 1912, Konovalov, being one of the founders and members of the Moscow. Bank Ryabushinskys and Eng. stock lnopromyshlennogo society, was elected to the State IV. Duma, where he became one of the major experts on economic policy and on the labor question. One of the most far-sighted representatives of the big bourgeoisie, Konovalov sought a peaceful reform of state. system and unsuccessfully tried to create a bloc of opposition and the roar. parties - the leftist Octobrists to the Bolsheviks, in which he was not able to help even the Masonic lodge "Grand Orient of peoples of Russia, a member of a swarm-it was from 1912. Using the labor movement, Konovalov offered to put pressure on the government I.L. Goremykina to dignitaries seriously by the demands of the Duma liberals. In 1915, Konovalov was Deputy Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and the organizer of the Duma "progressive bloc" that united the opposition factions under the slogan of a "Cabinet of National Defense". In Sept.. 1916 Konovalov urged Moscow. Manufacturers: "Salvation in one - in the organization itself, on the one hand, workers' organizations - on the other. If we look at the organization working with hostility, prevent it, we will only promote anarchy, to promote their own destruction ". During the February roar. 1917 Konovalov was a member of the Interim Committee of the State. City Council and was present at the refusal led. Duke Michael, from the throne. As Minister of Trade and Industry Konovalov became the first member of the Provisional Government. Radical in dofevralskih conditions Konovalova program could not compete with the Bolshevik slogans: he considered, . "If the owners do not become lawful owners of their enterprises, . then the company will not be able to operate normally and then the inevitable economic impasse ",
. In July 1917 Konovalov joined the Cadet Party, urging supporters in the appropriate choice: "A sensible world or the inevitable triumph of Lenin". In Sept.. 1917 entered the 3rd coalition Provisional Government and with other ministers were arrested and sent to the Peter and Paul Fortress. In 1918, Konovalov was released and emigrated to France where he advocated continued struggle against the Bolsheviks. Konovalov - one of the leaders of Russia. Zemstvo Urban Union (Zemgora), who's planning a Russian. abroad, and in 1924 - 1940 was chairman of the editorial published in Paris PN Miliukov gas. "Latest News", the most popular periodical of the prewar Russian. emigration. When the Second World War, Konovalov went to the U.S..
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
In the 1917 revolution
Konovalov Alexander Ivanovich (17 Sept.. 1875, Moscow 1948, New York). From family hl.-boom. manufacturers. In 1894-95 he studied at the physical and mathematical. Faculty are Moskovskogouniversiteta in 1895 - a professor-techn. School of spinning and weaving in Myulgauzene (Alsace, Germany), trained on the text, Prospect tiyah Germany and France. A gifted musician, a pianist.
From 1897, before. Board of T-va Manufactures Ivan Konovalov and son ". Applying the latest technology and office-tion of Labor, brought the company among the leading industry. Pursued a policy of paternalism to working, trying to improve their situation. Since 1900 Entered on p-tuples 9-hour. day; from the profits of the firm in 1912 to build 2 schools, a free reference library, club, 2 hospitals and maternity hospital, with free treatment, nurseries, barracks, dormitories for the unmarried, the settlement for family workers. Founder Cotton to-ta in Moscow. Exchange (1907), before. Kostromskaya. Univ of Commerce and Manufactures (1905-08), Comrade. prev. (1908-11) Moscow. Exchange to-ta, before. Ros Board. Mutual Insurance Union (1908-11), one of the founders and member of the Moscow. Bank Ryabushinskys (1912). and Eng. ASC. lnoprom. ob-va (1912).
In November. 1905 one of the organizers Toog.-prom. Party. He was a group of TN. young capitalists, headed by PP. Riabouchinsky (participated in the ongoing Ryabushiiskim in 1908-12 "economy. conversations with liberal professors). In 1909 one of the financiers gas. "Morning of Russia". The initiative Konovalova in Feb.. 1911 in gas. Rus. Gazette publ. Protest 66 Moscow industrialists and traders against the repression of students from the royal administration. In 1912, K-member Central Committee Progressives. Affairs. 4 th State. Duma: a member of the Progressive faction, a member of the Duma committees (Finance. Trade and prom-sti, working on the issue) before April. Comrade 1914. prev. Duma. Since 1912 member of the Masonic lodge "Grand Orient peoples of Russia". In June 1913, introduced a bill to the Duma on the labor question: the protection of women and minors, pages of dwellings for workers, disability insurance, old age, etc.. In the spring of 1914, together with Riabouchinsky tried to organize a bloc of opposition (the progressives, the Cadets, Left Octobrists) and Left (Revolutionaries. a-d.) parties to vnedumskogo pressure on Prospect of I.L. Goremykina. Since late. July 1915, Comrade. prev. Center. Voen.-Prom. to-one in June - July 1915, Comrade. prev. Mosk. Voen.-Prom. to-ta: in July - August, one of the organizers of the Duma of the Progressive Bloc, supported the slogan of education "responsible ministry" ( "cabinet th. Defense). After the dissolution of the Duma in Sept.. 1915 vacation opposed negotiations with the royal pr-tion, for creating "working groups" in Voen.-Prom. to the field and the convening of the All-Russia. workers' congress to form a mass of legal org-tion of workers to-heaven summed to a broad social base for the opposition. activities of liberal parties.
In Sept.. 1916 at a meeting of sinks. Industrialists said that "the day after the world we will have a bloody internal. war. It will be anarchy, rebellion. terrible explosion long-suffering masses ... Saving to one - in the org-tion itself, on the one hand, the org-tion of workers - on the other. If we look at the org-tion hostile to workers, prevent it, we will only promote anarchy, to promote his own. death "(" The bourgeoisie on the eve of Feb. Revolution of "status. BB Grave, M-L., 1927,. 140). In connection with the arrest of the "working group" with the Center. Voen.-Prom. to-those on charges of conspiracy made by Konovalov, 17 Feb. 1917 in the Duma with the protest, stressing that "the team was preparing to be a bulwark against other dangerous currents in the working masses" ( "State. Duma. 4-th convocation ". Stenografich. Reports. Session V, P., 1917, Ch. 1530).
In the days of Feb. Revolution of 1917 tsp. Provisional. K-State is the. Duma: March 3, participated in the negotiations with the Grand. kn. Mikhail Alexandrovich, on to-ryh latter had abdicated. Low. Trade and prom-sti (2 March - 18 May) the first of the Provisional. Prospect Island, a press statement on March 8 assured that "make every effort to ensure tomu.chtoby worker legislation development in accordance with the urgent needs", to "maintain social peace in the country to victory over the enemy" ( "Commerce and Industry. Newspaper, 1917, 8 March). Opposed the introduction of a natural 8-hour. working day, called "the guiding elements of the RCD to master the movement and send it to the mainstream of legitimate class. struggle "(Journal of Provisional. Pr-va, 1917, 18 May). One of the organizers Vseros. Union Trade and prom-sti, on its 1 st Congress (19-20 March) elected Comrade. Chairman. March 15 at the Special Meeting of fuel indicated that the slogan "All for the war" should unite all the faithful sons of the homeland "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 1,. 98). Because of disagreements with min. Agriculture AI. Shingaryov and mines. Labor MI. Skobelev on the forms and limits of state. regulation of the economy, as well as interference in the affairs of business of the Soviets and factory committees came from the times. Prospect Island. May 19 stated that the reason for his resignation is "lack of confidence that the time. Prospect of the given conditions will be able to show the fullness of power "(ibid., t. 2,. 172). Believed that "if the owners do not become lawful owners of their pr a bearing, the pr-ment will not be able to work normally and then the inevitable economical. impasse "(" Financial Review ", 1917," 18-19, with. 15).
Participated in the 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June), from July cadet, joined the Party Central Committee: advocated a separate peace, in Sept.. at a meeting of representatives of the Cadet Party formulated the dilemma: "A sensible world or the inevitable triumph of Lenin" (Nolde BE, Nabokov in 1917. Russian Archive. Revolution of, 1991, t. 7. with. 11). 8.10 August. participated in the meeting of the Society, officials in Moscow (elected to his post. Bureau), and in August. in Moscow. State. meeting.
Sep 25. 1917 entered the 3rd Coalition. Time, Prospect of a min. Trade and prom-sti, as well as deputy. min-before. According to the memoirs WA. Nabokov, Konovalov "as min. Trade and prom-sti clearly saw economical. destruction and no hope for a favorable outcome of events "(ibid.,. 52-53). He was elected a member of. Inaugural. Coll. On the morning of Oct. 25., Before his departure from Petrograd, п?.пє. Kerensky ordered Konovalov org-tion armament. resistance to the Bolsheviks in the capital. In 194.02 min. the day Konovalov sent from the Winter Palace in the rate last telegram: "Petrograd. Council declared deposed in Prospect, has demanded the transfer of power threatened the bombing of the Winter Palace, Peter and Paul cannon. Fortress and the cruiser "Aurora". Production of transfer of power can only inaugural. Assembly, has decided not to surrender and submit to protecting people and the army. Accelerate the dispatch of troops "(October. armament. Restore. Petrograd ". Docs and mat-ly, P., 1957,. 410). October 26. in 1 h. 50 min. Konovalov, along with others. Minister in the days. Prospect Island was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul. Fortress. 26 Nov.. handed a letter addressed before. Inaugural. Coll., Signed by all ministers, prisoners in the fortress, in a rum-ACCESSED. Prospect of transmit all authorities to establish. Assembly.
In early. Konovalov was released in 1918, he emigrated to France. In 1921, joined Rep.-Dem. group, in a swarm-teamed Right Socialist-Revolutionaries and the Cadets, who supported the "new tactics" P.N. Milyukova. He played for the continuation of the struggle against the Bolsheviks. In 1924 before. Council of Societies, org-tion, uniting left emigre circles. Together with Prince. G.E. Lvov and ND Avksentiev led Ros. Zemstvo Gore. Union (Earth mountains) - Org-date information on the device Russian abroad and schooling of children of emigrants. In 1924-40 before. "Latest News", published Milyukovs in Paris. Since early. 2-nd World. Konovalov war moved to the United States.