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Paul Joseph Goebbels (Goebbels)

( A senior leader of the Nazi party, the chief propagandist of the Third Reich, a close ally and friend of Hitler)

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Biography Paul Joseph Goebbels (Goebbels)
Goebbels, Paul Josef (Goebbels), (1897-1945), a senior leader of the Nazi party, the chief propagandist of the Third Reich, a close ally and friend of Hitler. Goebbels was born on October 29, 1897 in Rheydt, Rhineland. His father worked as an accountant and was a very devout man, he hoped that his son will become a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. But Goebbels, dreaming of a career writer or journalist, after graduating from high school in byurgershule and Rheydt chose to study the humanities. With the financial support of the Society of Albert Magnus "it from 1917 to 1921 at the universities of Freiburg, Bonn, Wurzburg, Cologne, Munich and Heidelberg he studied philosophy, Germanic, history and literature. At the University of Heidelberg under Professor Friedrich Gundolfa, literary historian, a Jew, Joseph Goebbels in 1921 he defended his thesis on the romantic drama, and acquired a degree. His own literary compositions repeatedly rejected by publishers and editors of liberal newspapers.

. When the 1-st World War, . Goebbels was declared unfit for military service because of lameness (he was disabled from birth), . that painful blow to his ego, . because he felt shame for themselves inability to serve his country during the war,
. He is always very sharp and sensitive to their own physical disability, because he always felt behind her humiliating taunts fellow, who called him behind his "little mouse doctor". Disadvantaged pride in him led to a deep-seated hatred, worse in the future need to speak to a healthy, blue-eyed "Aryan" audience.

. After 1-st World War II, tried unsuccessfully to success in field of poetry and drama (his sentimental maudlin play called "The Wanderer" ( "Der Wanderer") rejected the Frankfurt "Shaushpilhauz"), Goebbels found a way out of its energy policy
. In 1922 he joined the Nazi Party, originally acceded to its left, the socialist wing leaders who were at that time the brothers Strasser. In 1924, after moving to the Ruhr, Goebbels had tried his hand in journalism - as editor Felkishe freyheyt "(" People's Freedom ") in Elberfeld, then shtrasserovskoy HC-Brief". This period, . colored fierce controversy between Strasser and Hitler on the degree of socialism in the National Socialist Movement, . belongs to the famous saying Goebbels: "The bourgeois Adolf Hitler should be removed from the National-Socialist Party".,

. But in 1926, his political sympathies have changed dramatically in favor of Hitler, whom he has taken, or as Christ, or as a CB
. John ". "Adolf Hitler, I love you!" - He wrote in his diary. One of his first books devoted Goebbels - Hitler's "deep appreciation". His praise to the Fuhrer was passionate: "Even before the court in Munich, you are brought before us in the guise of vozhdya.To what you said there - the greatest revelation, unheard of in Germany since Bismarck. God gave you the words to name Germany's ills. You started from the bottom, like any truly great leader. And, as every leader, you became more majestic for as majestic become your problem.

Such words could not fail to attract favorable attention of Hitler. In 1926 he was appointed Gauleiter Goebbels, the Nazi Party in Berlin-Brandenburg. It was opened in the capital of Goebbels speaking skills, leading to his subsequent fate as the chief agitator and propagandist of the Nazi party and later the entire Reich. From 1927 to 1935 he served as chief editor of weekly newspaper Angrif "- the voice of the philosophy of national socialism. In 1928, Goebbels was elected to the Reichstag from the Nazi Party. At numerous rallies and demonstrations, this little man with a long nose, . always dressed in too long for his coat, . a strong, sharp voice, . kryvshy sarcasm and insults the Berlin city government, . Jews and Communists, . managed to attract wide attention,
. He "discovered" in the criminals Horst Wessel, Nazi, who was killed in a street fight, a political martyr and put forward doggerel Wessel as the official anthem of the party. Hitler was so amazed and delighted activity Goebbels in Berlin, which in 1929 appointed him head of the Imperial propaganda of the Nazi party. It was Goebbels, like anyone else, belong to credit for such a swift advance of Hitler's rise to heights of political power. In 1932 he organized and headed the election campaign, Hitler's nomination for the presidency, doubling his number of votes. His propaganda was crucial on the eve of Hitler's accession to the post of Chancellor. Cleverly adopting from American modern propaganda techniques and slightly modifying them under Germany's reality, Goebbels demonstrated a remarkable aptitude for the psychological impact on the audience. His "Ten Commandments National Socialist" written at the dawn of the Nazi movement, became the prototype of the ideological program of the Party:

. After becoming chancellor, Hitler March 13, 1933 appointed Goebbels Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, authorizing him to use all means to implement the program glyayhshaltung
. In this work Goebbels demonstrated that for him there is no principles or morals. He subdued all the elements of life - the press, cinema, theater, radio, sports - the National-Socialist ideals and actually became dictator of the cultural life of the nation. In order to please Hitler, he has made vicious and violent attacks against Jews. In May 1933 on the initiative of Goebbels in several German universities were committed publicly burning books. In the fires burning works of Thomas and Henry Mannov, Bertolt Brecht, Franz Kafka, Remarque, Lion Feuchtwanger and many other authors, proclaimed the ideas of freedom and humanism.

. Along with Heinrich Himmler and, later, with Martin Bormann, Goebbels was one of the closest and most influential advisers Hitler
. His wife, Magda Kvant, divorced from a Jewish businessman, and six of their children were special favorites among the closest associates Hitler at Berchtesgaden. His numerous connections to the theater and cinema - actresses were widely known in the country. Once he was beaten by outraged famous movie star, not sterpevshim courtship Goebbels for his wife. His relations with the Czech actress Lydia bars and almost led to divorce, until Hitler intervened. Goebbels was in constant disagreement with other Nazi leaders, especially with Herman Goering and Joachim von Ribbentrop, who irritated his closeness to Hitler.

. During the 2-nd World War to Goebbels was tasked with maintaining the morale of the nation
. His propaganda machine was designed to have lead to dissatisfaction with Soviet Russia and to encourage the Germans to stay until the final victory. This is becoming more and more difficult, when the war broke in favor of the Allies. Goebbels worked energetically to support the morale of the Germans, constantly reminding them of their participation in the event of surrender. After the failure of the July 1944 conspiracy, Hitler appointed Goebbels, the chief of the mobilization of "total war" and instructed him to collect all the material and human resources to fight to the last drop of blood. But it was too late: Germany was on the verge of collapse.

. In April 1945, true to his sense of mystical self-confidence, Goebbels advised Hitler to stay in Berlin in fyurerbunkere and, if necessary, to meet there dazzling mysterious "Twilight of the gods" (Gotterdammerung)
. Only in this way, tried to persuade Goebbels, may continue the legend of the great Hitler. Fuhrer, frightened by the possibility of being imprisoned naked in a circus cage Russian, agreed. One after another half-baked Nazi leaders were leaving their leader, but Goebbels remained. When he died April 12, 1945, President Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Goebbels in a state of euphoria, it is compared with a similar event in the life of Frederick the Great, which ended in victory. Hitler's mental state at a time stood up. In the political testament, Hitler appointed Goebbels, his successor as chancellor. Goebbels complemented own propaganda gesture. Immediately after the suicide of Hitler and Goebbels, Bormann made a last attempt to negotiate with the Russian. When it became clear that this is impossible, Goebbels decided to commit suicide. Magda Goebbels poisoned his six children and killed herself. Then put an end to the life and Goebbels.

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Goebbels (Goebbels) Paul Joseph (29.10.1897, Rheydt, Rhineland - 1/5/1945, Berlin), politician and statesman, Reichsleiter (1933). The son of an accountant. Since childhood handicapped - wobbly. With the help of the Catholic Society by Albert Magnus, . Goebbels udaetes in 1917-21 to listen to lectures in Freiburg, . Bonn, . Wц?rzburg, . Cologne, . University of Munich, 21.4.1922 received his Ph.D. from the University of Heidelberg, . defended Baron M,
. von Val'dberg thesis' Wilhelm von Schц?tz as a playwright. On the history of romantic drama school '. From 1921 he worked in the Cologne branch 'Dresdner Bank' stock exchange officials. In August. 1924 joined the NSDAP in Rheydt (ticket? 8762). Originally belonged to the socialist left wing of the Nazi Party, headed by Goebbels, Strasser. From 1924 he worked in the controlled party press Strasser: executive editor of the newspaper 'People's Freedom', the employee magazine 'National Socialist notes'. In 1921-24 wrote the novel 'Michael' (published in 1929), which developed the idea of the tragic fate of Germany. During the debate in 1924 between A. Hitler and Strasser Hitler demanded exclusion from the party. In 1925 met with Hitler and came to his side, began to actively oppose Strasser. From June 1925 to 26.9.1925, together with K. Kaufman, B. Lutz and Schmitz led Gau Rheinland - North. From 7/3/1926 to June 1926 - Gau Ruhr (with F. Pfeffer). On 26.10.1926 appointed head of the most important Gow Germany - Berlin and remained in that post until his death. By the time of arrival of Goebbels in Berlin, Nazi organization (about 1 thousand. pers.) was completely on the side Strasser. Had purged and expelled from the party, nearly 400 people. In the short term re-established the Berlin Nazi organization, achieving a sharp increase in the number of its members. Organizer clashes with the Communists. Because of the actions Goebbels 5/5/1927 authorities banned the activities of the NSDAP and the SA in Berlin, Goebbels banned public performances in the city. After this, the CA acted under the guise of various clubs and societies. In 1927-35 also was chief editor of the Berlin-based weekly newspaper 'Angrif'. By slanderous attacks made the resignation of the Chief of the Berlin Criminal Police Jew Weiss.

31/3/1928 ban on the party in Berlin was withdrawn. 20/4/1928 elected to the Reichstag from Berlin.

From 9.1.1929 imperial head of propaganda (Reichspropagandaleiter) in the system of imperial leadership of the NSDAP. In 1930, Goebbels propaganda techniques created a legend about the X. Wessel, turning it into a Nazi hero, but he had written poems - in the anthem of the NSDAP. In January. 1932 is also widely used in the propaganda campaign the death of a member of Hitler Youth Herbert Norkus, killed in brawl. Through the efforts of Joseph Goebbels, which organized obstruction of American film based on E. Remarque's 'On the Western Front', the film was

11/12/1930 banned in Germany as 'prejudicial to the country's reputation'. Early in 1932 lobbied for the fact that Hitler declared his candidacy for the presidency (despite the reluctance of Hitler himself). In 1932 Hitler led the election campaign, while achieving significant results. After the Nazis came to power,

13.3.1933 was appointed Minister for him created Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.

10/5/1933 organized a grand public burning of books, imbued with 'negermanskim spirit' (after this was said to withdraw from the libraries of 14 thousand. names of 141 German author). 30/6/1933 Hitler said that Goebbels is responsible 'for all the tasks of the spiritual impact on the nation ... for culture and for ... Alert society at home and abroad about all this'. At the same time, Goebbels until the end and was unable to establish control over all of Germany's propaganda machine: the press was in the hands on. Dietrich and M. Haman, in addition to the art of leadership is constantly interfered A. Rosenberg. 22/9/1933 created the Imperial House of Culture, placing him full control over all of Germany's intelligentsia, the President of the House. 14.5.1934 under the jurisdiction of Goebbels passed all the theaters of Germany, in the same year, Goebbels made the prohibition of 'the Negro jazz'. In 1935, created under its authority, the Imperial Senate culture. Goebbels was the creator of the system of propaganda in Germany, having achieved in this field of brilliant successes. With the help of his system Goebbels was free to manipulate public opinion in Germany, justifying any action of the Nazi regime.

9/11/1938, received a message about the murder in Paris diplomat E. vom Rath Gryunshpanom Jew, spoke to the 'old fighters' on anniversary of 'Beer Hall Putsch', calling for revenge on the Jews. He was one of the main organizers of the whole of Germany pogrom 9.10 nov., Known as 'Kristallnacht'. Since the beginning of 2 nd World War, the influence of Goebbels began to fall, which was associated primarily with strengthening the role of M. Bormann, Goebbels, Himmler, and a little later - A. Speer. Unsuccessfully to intrigue against Bormann. On 16.11.1942 the Imperial Commissioner Defense of Berlin. 14.2.1943 made at the Sports Palace in Berlin, saying one of his most incendiary speeches, urging listeners to mobilize all forces on the 'total war' with the enemy. However, the management of all activities remained in the hands of Bormann, Goebbels, Speer and Lammers. From 1/4/1943 State President Berlin. During the attempted coup 20/7/1944 swift and decisive action Goebbels became one of the main reasons for the defeat of the conspiracy in Berlin. Then Goebbels regained the boundless confidence of Hitler. On 25.7.1944 imperial commissioner for total war. One of the organizers and instigators Volkssturm. 18.4.1945, when the Soviet troops to Berlin, Goebbels began to destroy his papers, and April 19. last spoke by radio with the treatment over Hitler's birthday. Before his death, Hitler appointed Goebbels, his successor as Chancellor of the Reich, Goebbels and legally served from 30/4/1945. Together with his wife committed suicide, after killing his six children. The corpses of Goebbels and his wife Magda Goebbels had been doused with gasoline and burned in the courtyard of the Imperial Chancellery.

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