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HESSE Rudolf (Hess)

( One of the leaders of Nazi Germany, the Deputy Fuhrer of the party, the Nazis 'number three'.)

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Biography HESSE Rudolf (Hess)
Hess, Rudolf (Hess), (1894-1987), one of the leaders of Nazi Germany, the Deputy Fuhrer of the party, the Nazi "number three". Born April 26, 1894 in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of German merchant. During the 1-st World War II, Hess served on the Western Front, a platoon commander in the same regiment as Hitler. He was wounded at Verdun. At the end of the war came to serve in aviation. In 1919 he became a member of the Thule Society. At the same time entered into one of the units of the "Volunteer Corps under the command of General Franz von Eppa. In 1920 Hess joined the Nazi Party. He studied at the University of Munich under Professor Karl Haushofer, whose geopolitical theories have had a profound impression. After participating in the failed "Beer Hall Putsch" 1923 Hess fled to Austria. Returning to Germany, he was sentenced to seven months in prison, who served with Hitler in Landsberg prison where Hitler dictated to him his book "Mein Kampf". In 1925 became Hitler's personal secretary, in December 1932 the chairman of the central party committee and deputy of the Reichstag, and April 21, 1933 - Hitler's deputy in the party. June 29, 1933 Hess became Reich Minister without portfolio. After the reorganization of Hitler's military and political leadership on Feb. 4, 1938 Hess joined the m. n. Privy Cabinet. August 30, 1939, he became a member of the Executive Board on Defense. Simultaneously, he was appointed successor to Hitler after Goring. Special decree was entrusted to him control over all activities of the Nazi government and other public bodies. None of the government order, no law of the Reich had no power until they are signed or Hitler Hess. Hess was entrusted to take decisions on behalf of the Fuhrer, he was declared a "sovereign representative of the Fuhrer" and his office - the Office of the Fuhrer. "

. Devotion to the Fuhrer Hess, who raised him from the very bottom to the highest positions in the Reich, was an absolute
. Immersed in itself, devoid of high intellect and demagogic talents Hess knew only the absolute faith in their Fuehrer. "Hitler - he said - it is simply the embodiment of pure reason". In 1934, Hess said: "We are proud to see that only one man remains beyond all criticism. Each of us feels and understands that Hitler - is always right and that he will always be right ". At one of the Nuremberg Party Congresses Hess, as usual anticipating Hitler's speech, said: "I was given many years to live and work beside the greatest son of the nation, which our people must bring in a thousand years of history."

. May 10, 1941 Hess made a startled many a flight to Scotland
. On behalf of Hitler, he suggested Britain to make peace and take part in the campaign against the Soviet. In the UK, Hess was interned as a prisoner of war. In 1946 he appeared before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. During the trial, he frequently feigned memory loss, permanent peresprashivaya judges and repeating: "I do not remember anything". Posing the mentally ill, Hess defiantly tried to commit suicide. At the request of the court physicians carefully examined defendant and concluded that his actions were "conscious and deliberate nature of simulation". After that, he was exhausted, broken, his deep-set eyes listlessly staring into space. The court sentenced him to life imprisonment by Hess in Berlin's Spandau prison, where he died.

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. Hess (Hess), Rudolf Werner, Richard (26.4.1894, Alexandria, Egypt - 17/8/1987, Spandau Prison, Berlin), party and state leaders, Reichsleiter (1933), Obergruppenfiihrer SS Obergruppenfiihrer CA
. The son of the owner of the export-import firms 'Hess and K б°'. In 1912 he graduated from the Higher Business School in Neyshatele (Switzerland), from 1912 on probation in Commercial Hamburg. Participant 1 WWI. 20/8/1914 volunteered in the 7 th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment (later transferred to the elite 1-th Bavarian Infantry Regiment) served in the same regiment with a. Hitler, but knew him not. He fought on the Western Front at Verdun, where 12.6.1916 was wounded by shrapnel in the left wrist and shoulder. Since December. 1916 - Romania, the platoon commander. In August. 1,917 seriously wounded a third time. In May 1918 transferred to the aircraft, the last months of the war fought in the squadron 'Richthofen' under the command of Mr.. Goring. For military distinctions awarded the Iron Cross 1 st and 2 nd class and 8/10/1917 to lieutenant. In 1919 joined the Volunteer Corps F. background Eppa, as well as the 'Thule Society' - one of the ideological forerunners of the Nazi Party. He participated in the overthrow of the communist government of Red Bavaria (1/5/1919), was wounded. After demobilization he entered the Faculty of Economics, University of Munich, where friendly with Professor K. Haushofer, who had a huge impact on the Hess. Headed the university nationalist organization. Engaged D. Eckart to the Nazi movement. In June 1920 joined the NSDAP (later received membership card? 16). Hess was one of the organizers and leader of the student units CA. Introduced Haushofer to Hitler. Fascinated predictions and astrology. Published an essay 'What should be a man who is destined to return to Germany's past greatness?', Which was noted Prize and has received high praise Hitler. Member of 'Beer Hall Putsch' in 1923, during which the student detachment commander of the SA. On instructions from Hitler guarded arrested ministers of the Bavarian government and thus participate in the march did not take. After the failure of the coup fled to Austria, but in April. 1924 voluntarily returned to Germany, was sentenced to 18 months in prison and imprisoned Landsberg with Hitler. Served with the Fuhrer secretarial duties, in t.ch. it was he who dictated the text of Hitler 'Mein Kampf'. Had an enormous impact on the writing of books, many chapters of which directly reflect the personal views Hess. Even in prison, Hess began to actually act as a personal secretary to Hitler. At the end of December. 1924 released: Haushofer refused the offer to become his assistant at the Institute geopolptiki and the beginning of 1925 became secretary of Hitler on a permanent basis. His responsibilities included representing Hitler, reception of visitors, in some cases - the performance instead of Hitler, as well as the finalization of 'Mein Kampf' (published in the autumn, 1925). 1.4.1925 is listed SS (numbered 50). He played a huge role in creating the cult of the Fuhrer, as well as in portraying Hitler as supreme leader of the party. Hess, Hitler taught the gestures, preparing for important meetings etc.. Hess was one of the closest people to Hitler, in fact 'the shadow of the Fuhrer'. Through E. Kirdorfa held talks with F. Thyssens after having obtained it in 1928, grants of more than 1 million marks for the construction of the party's residence. Managed restructuring 'brown houses' in Munich (officially opened on 1.1.1931). Since 1932 Head of the Political Department in the imperial leadership of the NSDAP, NSDAP Commissioner for Political Affairs. On 21.4.1933 Deputy Fuehrer of the Party. By Decree Hitler had the right to make decisions on behalf of the Fuhrer on all matters, . related party leadership, . his task was to lead the main political events, . give directives and care about, . that all the Party's work was carried out according to the principles of National Socialism,
. In addition, Hess duties included approval of candidates for the posts of heads of official agencies and Germany labor front. 22/9/1933 Hitler ordered to cancel for Hess' titles and Reichsleiter Obergruppenfuhrer SS and leave only the title of 'deputy Fuhrer', putting Hess in absolutely exceptional position. On 1/12/1933 imperial minister without portfolio, whose responsibility it was to ensure close cooperation with the NSDAP and the SA public, authorities. 9/6/1934 signed a decree on which the CD only organization recognized by the service of political information and protection of the Party. During the 'Night of the Long Knives'

30/7/1934 in compiling a list of the leaders of Hitler's SA, to be destroyed, achieved a significant reduction in the number of sentenced.

14/11/1935 issued a decree by which Jews were deprived of their right to vote and hold public office.

4.2.1938 entered into the Privy Council, and 30.8.1939 - the Council for Defense of the Reich.

1/9/1939 Hitler officially appointed Hess his second successor, after Goering. While Hess and wielded immense power, he was not suited to the bureaucratic work, and therefore more power when it was his chief of staff - M. Borman. With his help Hess created the machine, duplicating most of the higher government agencies. Under the direct control of Hess (although the main levers in the hands of Bormann) was established and operated 'Fund of Adolf Hitler'. Considered it necessary for the successful development of Germany to establish strong ties of friendship with Britain. In June 1940, Hess decided to fly to England to get her support of Hitler's plans. For a variety of sources Hess made several unsuccessful attempts at flight to Scotland - 21/12/1940 and 18/1/1941. In late April 1941 Hess made a final decision to fly to negotiate with the Duke of Hamilton.

10/5/1941 flew to Scotland on a plane Me-110D and landed near Inglshem Moor in Scotland (cm. Hess's flight), where he was arrested by military authorities. U. Churchill refused to meet with Hess.

11/5/1941 Hitler received a message on his outstretched Hess, came in a frenzy, and after consultation Hess was declared insane. Even earlier was an attempt to intercept the plane Hess and knock him over France. Containing as internment in Britain, at the request of British authorities in October. 1944 he became clearly visible signs of mental disorder. As the chief war criminals brought to justice by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Carried out during the process of psychiatric examination found him mentally sound and capable, then Hess made a statement acknowledging that the previously simulated loss of memory. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Kept in Spandau Prison in the British sector of Berlin. Since 1966 he was the only prisoner jail. Family Hess repeatedly attempted to secure his release, but the Soviet side has always been opposed to this objection, but many believe that the main opponent of the release of Hess was Britain. Repeatedly attempted suicide. In 1987 the Soviet government announced the possibility of release Hess. Found hanged in cell. Countries victorious in an official communique said that it was suicide. Hess's son, as well as a large number of researchers believe that this was murder, organized by the British security services who feared the release of Hess.

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