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Charles de Gaulle (Gaulle)

( French President)

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Biography Charles de Gaulle (Gaulle)
Gaulle (Gaulle), Charles de (November 22, 1890, Lille - November 9, 1970, Colombo-les-Deux-Eglises), French politician and statesman, founder and first president of the Fifth Republic.

Origin. Formation outlook

De Gaulle was born into an aristocratic family and was educated in the spirit of patriotism and Catholicism. In 1912 he graduated from the Military College Saint-Cyr, becoming a professional military. He fought in the fields of the First World War, 1914-18, was taken prisoner, was released in 1918. In the world of de Gaulle had influenced his contemporaries such as philosophers A. Bergson and E. Boutroux, writer M. Barres, the poet W. Peguy.

Even in the interwar period, he became a devotee of French nationalism and a strong supporter of executive power. Confirmation of that are the books published by de Gaulle in 1920-30-ies. - "Discord in the country of the enemy" (1924), "On the Edge of the Sword" (1932), "Professional Army" (1934), "France and its army" (1938). In these writings on military issues, de Gaulle was in fact the first in France, has predicted a decisive role armored forces in future wars.

. The Second World War

. The Second World War, which began with De Gaulle was promoted to general, turned his life
. He strongly rejected the truce, signed by Marshal A. F. Peten with Nazi Germany, and flew to England to organize the struggle for the liberation of France. June 18, 1940, de Gaulle appeared on London radio address to his countrymen, urging them not to lay down their arms and join them in exile based association "Free France" (after the 1942 "Fighting France").

. In the first stage of the war, de Gaulle, the main efforts directed at establishing control over the French colonies, under the authority of pro-fascist Vichy
. As a result, the "Free French" joined Chad, Congo, Ubangi-Shari, Gabon, Cameroon, and later other colonies. Officers and soldiers of the "Free France" always participated in military operations allies. Relations with Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union, de Gaulle sought to build on the basis of equality and the pursuit of national interests of France. After the Anglo-American troops in North Africa in June 1943 in Mr.. Algeria was established French Committee of National Liberation (FCNL). De Gaulle was appointed co-chair (along with a general. Giraud), and then sole chairman. In June 1944, FCNL has been renamed the Provisional Government of the French Republic. De Gaulle became its first head. Under his leadership, the government restored democratic freedoms in France, conducted a socio-economic reforms. In January 1946 de Gaulle resigned as prime minister, broke up in the views on major domestic policy issues with representatives of the Left parties of France.

During the Fourth Republic

In the same year in France was established Fourth Republic. According to the Constitution of 1946, the real power in the country did not belong to the President of the republic (as proposed by de Gaulle), and the National Assembly. In 1947, de Gaulle again included in the political life of France. He founded the Association of the French People (RPF). The main objective of the RPF began to struggle for the abolition of the Constitution of 1946 and the conquest of power by parliamentary means to establish a new political regime in the spirit of De Gaulle. Initially, the RPF was a great success. It joined the ranks of 1 million. man. But to achieve its goal Gaullists did not. In 1953 de Gaulle dissolved the RPF and distanced himself from political activity. During this period Gaullism finally took shape as the ideological-political movement (the idea of the state and "national greatness" of France, social policy).

. Fifth Republic

. Algerian crisis in 1958 (the Algerian struggle for independence) has paved the way for de Gaulle to power
. Under his direct guidance was developed by the Constitution of 1958, which significantly expanded the prerogatives of the president (executive branch) by Parliament. Since the beginning of its history still exist Fifth Republic. De Gaulle was elected its first president for a seven-year. Priority of the President and the Government of the settlement was "the Algerian problem". De Gaulle strongly pursued a course of self-determination Algeria, despite serious opposition (the French army mutinies and ultrakolonialistov in 1960-61, the terrorist activities of the SLA, a number of assassination attempts on de Gaulle). Algeria was granted independence after the signing of the Evian agreements in April 1962. In October of that year in a general referendum was adopted important amendments to the Constitution of 1958 - on the election of president by popular vote. On its basis in 1965, de Gaulle was reelected president for a new seven-year term.

Foreign policy, de Gaulle sought to implement in line with his idea of "national greatness" of France. He insisted on the equality of France, U.S. and UK in NATO. Failing success, the president in 1966 withdrew France from NATO's military organization. In relations with Germany, de Gaulle managed to achieve notable results. In 1963 was signed by Franco - Germanic cooperation agreement. De Gaulle was one of the first advanced the idea of "united Europe". He conceived it as a "Europe of the homeland", in which each country would retain its political independence and national identity. De Gaulle was a supporter of the idea of detente. He sent his country on the path of cooperation with the Soviet Union, China and Third World countries.

Domestic politics, de Gaulle paid less attention than the external. Student unrest in May 1968 testified to the serious crisis affecting French society. Soon the president put forward a general referendum on the draft of a new administrative division of France and the reform of the Senate. However, the project has not received approval by a majority of the French. In April 1969 de Gaulle had voluntarily resigned, finally abandoning political activity.

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