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Biography BRIC Lily
Such women appear at all times and at all times - whether at the court of the Emperor or among the bohemians, they immediately became the center of attraction. Like comets, they drifted through life, accumulating in its "tail" of fans - the brightest, most talented people. And as a comet, they destroyed everything in its path.
Such a comet early twentieth century was Lilya Kagan, that the world knew how Lily Brik. She was accused in the death of Mayakovsky, and she wore to the last days on a chain presented by the poet ring engraved with her initials - L.YU.B. that were taking shape in endless "love."
. "The name of the father of the legendary women: - Uriah Aleksandrovich Kagan - can be found not only in the list of barristers in the Moscow Trial Chamber:, . but also in the list of members of the Literary and Art Circle, . collecting in those years the cream of the cultural elite of the "second" capital of Russia "(A,
. Vaksberg). He was known, as they say now, as a human rights activist, a fighter for the rights of Jews. He was not willing to accept orthodoxy and "achieved everything.. being able to overcome all the barriers that Russia's law had pitched for infidels.
. "His wife, . Elena rizhanka Yulyevna Berman, . was the daughter of well-educated and wealthy parents, . studied at the Moscow Conservatory (for unbaptized Jew enter this holy of holies, too, required a considerable effort), . but professional does not become: "(Vaksberg).,
. Lilya Kagan, subsequently Lilya Yurievna (Urievna) Brick was born in 1891, her sister, Elsa (the future French writer Elsa Triolet and wife of Louis Aragon) was born five years later.
. Even in high school rumors of Liling literary ability, though in reality all the works written for her literature teacher, apparently, is not disinterested.
. The parents tried to teach her daughter: first, it was the Faculty of Mathematics Higher female rates, then the Moscow Architectural Institute, some time in Munich, she wanted to become a sculptor
. "But the study could not replace what was far more interesting: amorous adventures, ardent vows, secret meetings, breaks and new meetings" (Vaksberg).
. The most prominent "knee" in the family, for some reason called "noble", was "romance" with his own uncle (when "of harm's way", she was sent to her grandmother in the city of Katowice)
. Uncle demanded "marriage, the good, the laws of the Jewish religion is not contained on this no prohibitions.
. I had to return her daughter to her home and hire a piano teacher, to get rid of the child which she was sent to the province to the extended family
. "The operation was not too successful: Lilya forever lost the ability to have children, although without this trouble to motherhood has never sought. Neither then nor later ". (Vaksberg).
Finally, in 1912. Moscow rabbi married the Lily and Osip Brik, to the delight of parents, . who considered, . it is a good gesheft - the opportunity to "marry" a gay "daughter of" qualified lawyer: "True, . the groom's parents are delighted with the marriage of his son were, . knowing "what cable runs" for the young.,
. Love triangle
. Lily Yuryevna was 24 years old, and she is already two years was married to Osip Brik
. Elsa Yuryevna was 17 and she had an affair with Mayakovsky. Everything in life is turned upside down this quartet in 1915, when Elsa has led his cavalry in the St. Petersburg apartment Brikov brag - Mayakovsky read yet unpublished "Cloud in Pants".
The result: Brik, Mayakovsky was carried away, and studied his poem, was a philologist and writer. We Elsa upset affair with Mayakovsky, although later she wrote: "But he gave me to know all the fullness of love. Physical - too. "
Unfortunate outcome of 1917. for Elsa after a series of failed "novels" has the same inability to have children, like the elder sister.
. But among fans of Elsa appeared member of the French military mission in Moscow, Andrei Tirol, whom she married in France, inexplicably left with this end of Soviet Russia
. Elsa was a French, then went for a great Aragon, was a writer, evrokommunistkoy.
. Mayakovsky himself got a real tragic love of the poet, corresponding to the dimensions of his poetic gift, and Lilya Brik felt the scale of power of love, which is consistent with its claims.
. Arkady Vaksberg, . author of "Lilya Brik", . considers, . that is the closest to the truth version, . Basil expressed Katanyanom (son of the late husband Lili Brik): "Lily loved only Ossip, . who did not love her; Mayakovsky - only Lily, . which, . alas, . not like it, and finally, . All three could not live without each other ",
Al. Mikhailov believes that somewhere in the winter or spring 1916. Osip, "yielding to his wife to another, while remaining lawful husband, chose him (and the rest of his life, yet almost 30 years!) Role:", which Mikhailov could not even qualify.
. Lily herself confessed that to Mayakovsky in Brikov to literature was a passive interest
. It will be seen that the emergence of interest in the work of Mayakovsky by Brik become active commercial.
. That recognition of Lily of the attitude towards Osipov, "which plunges into complex thoughts" (cited by Mikhailov): "I loved, I love and will love Osya more than a brother more than her husband, more than a son
. About a love I have not read in any verse, or in any books ... This love will not interfere with my love for Volodya. On the contrary: it is possible that if it were not Osia, I would have liked to Volodya was not so much. I could not help loving Volodya, if it so fond Osya.
This situation is in "the family" did not cause joy or of his mother Lily, let alone in the family, Mayakovsky. In March 1919, "family" moved to Moscow and lived in a small room ( "Twelve square yards of housing), then gets a room in Mayakovsky Lubyanskiy Passage, this room in a communal apartment was his private office.
. Summer "family" held at the dacha outside Moscow - in the village of Pushkino, where Mayakovsky for days worked, and the remaining two members of the family were sunbathing and a very pleasant time.
. In 1920, Mr.
. "family" moved to another apartment, where there were already two rooms here Mayakovsky spent most of the time, "while civilian husband of a married (formally) Lili Brik Yurevna ..." (Vaksberg).
. The fact that Mayakovsky was suffering from various kinds of "hobbies" girlfriend, did not bother him "civil" wife, who said: "Suffer Volodya useful, he'll torment and write good poetry"
. Add that for good poetry, Mayakovsky getting good money, while permitting a better living "family".
The summer of 1922 with Lili Brik, a new hobby. "From the text of the poem" About this "can extract the reference to" jealousy ", sheds light on the situation. But look at it from her and Mayakovsky was uneven. "Legitimate" wife of one husband and the real (or as they say, civilian) of another, Lily Yurievna in his circle of professed complete freedom from matrimonial obligations "(Mikhailov).
. In 1922 Mayakovsky and Lilya Brik by agreement to part of two months, which led to writing poems about love "About That" and "love"
. Lilya Brik same, being a proponent of "free love", continued to live carefree and fun, "to the end of life, even losing the idea of the age" (Mikhailov).
. "Lily - a perfectly accurate calculation, quite deliberately, which itself subsequently never denied - was on it (making Mayakovsky suffer
. - VB), making him less painful way to compel a chain to the desk ". (Vaksberg). And it was quite in keeping with the family Brik - had the best possible way to live in this very difficult time for the country.
In early 1923. Contemporaries noted the extraordinary rise of Mayakovsky's lyrical talent, "family" also continued to be family, and the poet was her breadwinner.
"Contemporaries of both sexes indicate that Mayakovsky feels like the moral cleanliness. Do not tolerate obscene jokes and the same conversations about women. He was not Don Juan with women. For this role, he lacked a lot: "(Mikhailov).
In 1926, Mr.. Mayakovsky receives a small four-room apartment in Gendrikov Lane, which also moved in and Brick, the friendship with which "all the time demanded a tangible reinforcement". And now, Osip Brik, "nowhere for a long time and no serious work had idler in the" family ": ex-husband in the second ex-husband of his wife". (Mikhailov).
1927. in the life of Mayakovsky and "family" is characterized by several aspects:
. 1) constant participation in the literary gatherings in Gendrikov Lane Jacob Saulovich Agranov, a large employee agency berries, then became Deputy Commissar;
. 2) suddenly emerged presidency (instead of Mayakovsky) at meetings of LEF Lili Brik;
. 3) the highest point of recognition of Mayakovsky as poet during his lifetime;
. 4) the knowledge they need to decide in private life;
. 5) for Osip Brik was a year of consolidation of relations with Evgeny Sokolov (pearl) and work as a writer;
. 6) for Lili Brik was a year of completion of the novel with Krasnoshchokov and Kuleshov, as well as the year of first love with failure Pudovkin.
. Dangerous for the "family" cases Mayakovsky visited
. He had only to fall in love with another woman, as the event immediately Briks evaluated in terms of a possible withdrawal of the poet's "family". If the situation seemed critical, then taken a variety of methods to eliminate the danger, until the connection kin Brik Cheka-OGPU-NKVD.
The very same Lilja, according to a. Vaksberg, "no ties are not recognized and each time felt that her husband, who was particularly close to her at the moment". Note that this was a lot!
Some thought that Mayakovsky is very rich. Apparently, this view was based on his extraordinary generosity. When he had money, he entertained friends, gave them gifts, gave money to lend, helped his sisters and mother, who gave money monthly.
. And he was absolutely right when he wrote: "I and the ruble is not accumulated lines ..." ( "Breaking the Silence"), for "family" is constantly worried about how to quickly spend the money received by Mayakovsky.
. In this regard, especially the characteristic was the story of the "compact car".
. Perfume, stockings and "compact car"
. In late October 1924, Mayakovsky traveled to Paris via Riga and Berlin
. Life of Mayakovsky in Paris was under the care of her sister Lily - Elsa, for Lily was bought a new coat, which, in addition to krasnoschekovskoy "pleasantly enriched Lilin wardrobe (Vaksberg). Also was ordered pigskin suitcase, bought hats, perfume, and in turn were pajamas.
But, as we know, "the appetite comes with eating, and that's when Mayakovsky's trip to Paris in autumn 1928. Lily wrote a letter after them, recalling: "ABM machine can not forget" - and lists seven main points that I had to buy a car.
. But once the request for "family" Mayakovsky could not perform as well as "welled acquaintances, namely, Mayakovsky went to Nice for a meeting with his three-year daughter and her mother - an American Ally Jones
. And after the return from Nice, Mayakovsky met Alekseyevna Tatiana Yakovleva, left Russia in 1925. Mayakovsky at first sight in love with Tatiana, and in his poems after five years was renewed love theme. This "Letter to a friend Kostrov from Paris about the essence of love" and "Letter to Tatiana Yakovleva," which was published only in 1956.
. "Vladimir Putin not only fell in love with Tatiana, but he soon discovered his intentions to marry her, take her back to Russia
. Poems the poet once again rise up to the heights of exquisite lyricism, "throat stars soared up the word zolotorozhdennoy comet '(Mikhailov).
. About this event, . naturally, . immediately send reports Elsa Triolet in Moscow Lilya Brik, . but the sisters did not immediately understand, . how this matter seriously, . insights came after the appearance of Mayakovsky's poems, . not on Lily, . it was the gravest blow to the ego Lily and blow in the future for its welfare.,
. But not only Elsa informed "family" of the Parisian affairs Mayakovsky
. There was another man - diplomat Zakhar Ilyich Volovich (for his fellow security officers known as Vilyansky or as Zorya for friends), who maintained contact with and regularly shipped Elsa Lila French cosmetics.
. Meanwhile in Moscow were a reminder of the compact car
. These are the "souvenirs" ordered Lily Mayakovsky from Paris: "pink tights 3 pair, 3 pairs of black tights, stockings, expensive, or quickly tear: Perfume Rue de la Paix, powder Hubigant and generally a lot different that Elly will advise. Beads, if still in fashion, green. Motley dress, beautiful, from krepzhorzheta, and another can be cut low to celebrate the New Year.
. And Mayakovsky made great efforts in search of work, but because the money required considerable, does everything to satisfy the whim of the next "family".
. The poet returned to Moscow on 8 December, and after him came dispatches from Paris about his love affairs, but receive "compact car" and the remoteness of the opponent somewhat softened the status of "family"
. Certainly, delivery "compact car" across the border has not been without assistance intimate friend Lily Jani Agranova.
. Car story had continued - Lily was hit by a little girl, cause there were no legal consequences (here remember about Agranova), followed by Lily went to the driver.
. Upon his return from Paris Mayakovsky took his explanation with Lily, . which at that time had a regular affair with Kirghiz Yusupov Abdrakhmanov, . but was terribly concerned about Mayakovsky's desire to marry Tatiana and bring it to Moscow, . as, . naturally, . was notified and Jana Agranoff.,
. "No matter how much was charming and attractive Lilja, no matter how clever and talented Osip - still the core, soul and attractive homes in the magnet Gendrikov was Mayakovsky
. Any of his wife any "dvusemeystvennosti" would stand by. Tatiana, whose psychological portrait of Lilya carefully examined by the stories of the Mayakovsky, the letters of Elsa, according to friends at home, would undergo a double and triple ". (Vaksberg).
Even an attempt to distract from Mayakovsky Yakovleva acquaintance with Nora Polonskaya (wife M. Yanshina), and Mayakovsky's desire to marry her after being unable to leave for Paris and a break with Yakovleva not reduced the risk for a "family" left without a breadwinner and poiltsa. At the same time, Mayakovsky's literary legacy could bring "the family" tangible financial benefits. Here, as in the classical detective story, you can ask a question: "Who would be advantageous for the death of Mayakovsky?".
. As a result, with large-scale campaign of harassment of Mayakovsky, and Briks left for travel abroad to get acquainted with the cultural life of Europe
. "And among the relatives not found the man who can be trusted innermost. Because - the loneliness of the world because - Depression ". (Mikhailov).
. Until now, remains a mystery death of Mayakovsky, . as if specially prepared a number of life circumstances, . perhaps, . created by the efforts of friendly Brik "organs": the failure of the performances, . baiting in the press, . creating a vacuum around it in the sense of human communication,
. This situation is well described M. Yanshin: "All those who could kick (his) hoof: All kick. And friends, all who could: with him was not a single person. Generally no. It did not happen: "(A. Vaksberg).
. At that, . that the action against Mayakovsky was carefully planned organizational and psychological, . indicated by the fact, . that after the departure Brikov in Europe, . the apartment "family" moved Chekist Lev Elbert (snob) and replaced Brikov as everyday society "orphan" Mayakovsky.,
. Thus, . impression, . as a result received from the Brick and from the Cheka "friends" house of information about Mayakovsky's desire to marry a foreign girl and, . perhaps, . remain thereafter in France, . taken all possible measures to curb the Cheka such intentions,
. Perhaps, it was agreed that the Moor has done his job and can comfortably go, stayed classic literature and life provider Briks.
April 14, 1930 at 10:15 am, Mayakovsky committed suicide by gunshot to the heart with a revolver. This happened in Moscow, in the house? 3 to Lubyanskiy Passage Blvd. ? 12. Obviously, it was a suicide. However, despite the request of the poet's posthumous' In that die, do not blame anyone, and please, do not gossip. The deceased is not terribly fond of ', voiced version of the murder. Further examination and investigation of any conclusive evidence of this version is not found.
. Mayakovsky left Lille posthumous letter (for some reason, written two days before his death!): "Comrade Government, my family - it Lilya Brik, mom, sister and Veronica Vitoldovna Polonskaya
. If you give them a decent life - thank you. True to himself Lila immediately called Hope Polonskaya and asked not to come to the funeral in order not to pollute with his presence last moments of farewell to his family Volodya ". Nora did not come - at this time it just brought to the investigator ...
The day after the funeral, April 18, 1930, Lily asked Nora to come to her. Actress Polonskaya Theater, Nora, wife of Michael Yanshina, was the last mistress of Mayakovsky, with whom at one time he drove herself Lily, to distract from the dangerous rival Yakovleva. Nora spoke frankly about the novel, Lily and Mayakovsky, and his last days.
... Worth Lily to leave, as Mayakovsky suddenly became rude to demand that Nora left Yanshina and married him. He said that he was unbearably hard to live alone, he was frightened. On that fateful day, April 14, he was almost insane. (Spring of 1930 Mayakovsky's depression was at its peak, and he was barely control myself.) Seeing his condition, Nora promised after the show to talk with her husband and move to the poet in the Lubyanka travel. When she left - a shot rang out.
Throughout his long life, Lily Yurievna curse that Berlin trip, repeating that if she was there, Mayakovsky would have stayed alive
. Name Veronica Polonskaya mentioned in the suicide letter, will be forgotten as accidental, but in history next to the name of the great poet left it alone, Lilya Brik, his eternal love.
. 23 July 1930 government decree came out for heirs Mayakovsky
. They were found to Lilya Brik, his mother and his two sisters. Each of them entitled to a pension of 300 rubles, at that time considerable. Lily also received and half of the copyright, the other half divided family Mayakovsky. Lilya Brik recognized for all of these rights, power, in fact, admitted her bigamy ...
BRIC, Kagan and Lubyanka
In March 1918. opened foreign intervention in Soviet Russia, that did not prevent Elsa Kagan Cheka permission to leave the country in order to marry the enemy (French) officer Andre Tirol.
And in 1920,. Osip Brik received the certificate of officer of the Cheka, where street people are not taken, and needed a recommendation of some rather big employee of the organization. It is no accident Sergei Yesenin then attributed this epigram:
You think Osya Brik --
Researcher of the Russian language?
But in fact it bacon
And the investigator Cheka.
Note that parted with Osip GPU December 31, 1923, Mr.. because he was "slow, lazy, inefficient, but relations with the Lubyanka not lost.
. It is said that it was through Osip make a permit to leave the country for his wife Josephine Pasternak, his parents and sister Lydia.
. The very same Lilya Brik first time in Soviet times, went abroad (in Latvia) for the British visa in October 1921
. In England at that time was, and Elsa, who had by this time parting with her husband.
. Some biographers Lili Brik impression, . she traveled to Latvia for the Cheka Cases, . but it also left-special plenipotentiary diplomat and foreign affairs department of the Cheka Elbert, . through which at his frequent trips to Moscow, she transferred the letter to Mayakovsky,
. The main appeal letters Mayakovsky - "Wait for me!" Do not betray, I am terribly afraid of this ". In Moscow, Lily had expected the new poem "Love", dedicated to her.
In the summer of 1922. dacha in Pushkino Lily met another Truckers - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Krasnoshchokov (Deborin Tobinsonom, . or other data, . He was called Froim-Yudka Movshev Krasnoshchek), . this time the former Deputy Commissar of Finance, . member of the commission to remove church valuables, . ie,
. "to plunder the property of various denominations, especially the Russian Orthodox Church. (Vaksberg).
. "Lily Yurievna writing confessed Mayakovsky, that does not feel more old feelings for him:" (Mikhailov).
. The novel is Lily Krasnoshchokov interrupted by a sad way: he, of course, spent large sums of public funds, together with his brother Jacob arranged completely wild sprees
. The indictment of "activities" brothers Krasnoshchekova stated that they "ordered their wives and astrakhan Khor'kova coat ..." But at this time Krasnoshchekova wife was in America and the role of the wife then could only claim Lily. "But her name in court documents did not mention. Competent authorities spared Lily already ". (Vaksberg).
. Krasnoshchekova released "for health reasons", but "the whole of Moscow" lomilas to premiere, where Lilya Brik has been bred as Rita Kern, who lured the head of the bank and was presented by the author of the play as a fiend of evil.
. Status of the "family" was later dedicated to the pamphlet, written by the first French ambassador to Soviet Russia by Paul Moran "I burn Moscow"
. "Later, researchers explain the anti-Semitic novel struck Moran abundance of Jews among the Soviet elite ..." (Vaksberg). Here, Lily has been bred as Vasilisa Abramovna, and Osip, combined with Krasnoshchokov, was named Ben Moyshevich.
. Lili Brik's trip to England and Germany has been postponed until the autumn, and at this time in the "salon" Brick has a new man, whom they affectionately called "Jana" - Agranoff, whose real name was Jacob Saulovich Sorendzon, while investigating the Cheka
. Wife Agranova later wrote that her husband at the time headed the department for supervision of the intelligentsia.
. "When Dzerzhinsky was bloodier investigator Cheka Jacob Agranoff, an epileptic with a woman's face ...",- characterized the Roman Gul (Dzerzhinsky, M.," Young Guards ", 1992) of the person at the Briks affectionately called" Jana "
. And Roman Gul went on: "He killed many prominent public figures and of outstanding Russian scientists: Prof.. Tikhvinsky Prof.. Volkova, prof. Lazarev, NN. Shchepkina brothers Astovyh, KK. Chernosvitova, N.A. Ogo, and many others ... It's bloody nothingness is the actual murderer of the remarkable Russian poet NS. Gumilev.
When you receive a new passport the same Lilya Brik presented a certificate dated July 19, the GPU for? 15073! (A. Vaksberg).
Numerous trips abroad to "family" at a time when leaving the country was extremely difficult to travel that they felt no restraint in the means of livelihood, all this shows the strong links with the OGPU Brikov. Of course, the source of funds to a comfortable existence was a poetic work of the breadwinner and family poiltsa VV. Mayakovsky. In 1927, Mr.. Mayakovsky wrote a number of poems in praise of the KGB, which strangely coincides with their onslaught in the salon Lili Brik. One of the poems - "Soldiers of Dzerzhinsky" - was devoted to "Val. M. "- Valery Gorozhanin. It is believed that he introduced Agranova in Liling circle. A. Vaksberg wrote: "Friendship with the whole family with Agranov was in sight, and many of his contemporaries, including those who were close to home, no doubt about the nature of his relationship with Lily. Some evidence directly use the word "lovers".
One of the regulars was a saloon and Mikhail S. Gorb (Moses Savelievich Rozman) - Deputy Head of the foreign department of the OGPU. The fact that all these people were friends of Lily, said the fact that they have not disappeared after the death of VV. Mayakovsky home Brikov, about Boris Pasternak, who said that "flat Brikov was, in essence, the Moscow police department."
. After Mayakovsky's death Lily is preparing the collected works of the poet (despite the protests of his mother and sisters)
. Difficulties with the publication, and she wrote a letter and. Stalin, in which he asked to help in the publication of collected works. It was on her letter to Stalin wrote: "Mayakovsky was and remains the best, most talented poet of our Soviet epoch. Indifference to his memory and works - a crime. "
The words of the leader is not in question. Mayakovsky became the main reason the Soviet Union. (Immediately after the arrest of Primakov, Stalin, according to legend, said the phrase "Do not touch the wife of Mayakovsky", referring to Lily Brik).
. Later, Lily marries commander 'of hearts kozachestva' corps commander Vitaly Primakov, the repression in 1937
. Later, a literary Katanyan Basil, who became her 'last, fourth husband' (de jure - the third).
Lilya Brik translate, theoretical writings (eg, about creativity V. Dostoevsky), sculpture (busts in. Mayakovsky On. Brik In. Katanyan, self-portrait is stored in private collections). Her home salon on Kutuzov in 1960. has been a notable center of the informal cultural life. She often visited Maya Plisetskaya, Rodion Shchedrin, and other figures of culture and art.
Lilya Brik committed suicide on Aug. 4, 1978, Mr.. dacha in Peredelkino, taking a lethal dose of sleeping pills. She decided that his physical helplessness (she had a fracture of the femoral neck) causes pain and burdens of their loved ones.
The ashes of Lili Brik, according to her will, was scattered somewhere in the Moscow region. In the place found a stone with the inscription 'Letter'.
Photos of BRIC Lily
|roman bradis for BRIC Lily
|Unfortunately, no mention that Lili Brik, passed away following the example of Mayakovsky committed suicide.
|EN for BRIC Lily
|Pasternak was not his wife Josephine. woman, whom he was married at the time, called Eugene. Josephine - his cousin.
|Faith for BRIC Lily
|There are many interesting things in her marriage with biogr.Ofitsialnogo Primakov bylo.Muzhchiny not like her for some reason to.Shodili mad at her laskam.Chto methods were used for Lily? "There has not been without magic.
|El for BRIC Lily
|I tried to read this article but the English is horrendous. I doubt that is a random google translation.