Sherwood Rowland( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1995)
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Biography Sherwood Rowland
Rowland, Sherwood (Rowland, Sherwood) (p. 1927) (USA). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1995 (jointly with J. Krutsenom and M. Molina).
Born June 28, 1927 in g.Delaver, Ohio, the middle of three sons in the family, who moved here a year before his birth. In 5 years came in the first grade and graduated from high school when he was 16 years. The school determined his interest in atmospheric phenomena, tk. science teacher confidence in him during summer vacation to work instead on the local weather station.
He finished school in 1943 and enrolled in Veslyansky University of Ohio, where he studied for 2 years and then enlisted in the Navy and began to study the work of the operator's radar. The war is over, but next year he continued to serve.
Returning to the University, graduating in 2 years. Autumn of 1948 enrolled in graduate school at the Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago. At that time, was taken immediately to appoint a temporary head of the graduate student. So the head was Rowland W. Libby. (Nobel Laureate, 1960). Rowland felt that almost everything needed for a research scientist he was, listening and watching Libby. Rowland thesis was devoted to studying the properties of radioactive isotopes of bromine, obtained by cyclotron.
In September 1952 he moved to Princeton University, where he became a lecturer at the Department of Chemistry. Every summer, 1953-1955 Rowland spent in the chemical department of Brookhaven National Laboratory, was engaged in a new area - chemistry 'hot atoms' tritium and synthesized the tritium-labeled glucose.
In 1956 became an assistant professor University of Kansas and later a professor. The Study Group worked productively during the eight years, mainly studying tritium.
In August 1964 Rowland - Head of the Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine. Here he received the support of the Atomic Energy Commission (until 1994), and then NASA. Chemistry of 'hot atoms' continued to play a major role in his research. He appealed to the photochemistry of radioactive labels using tritium and carbon-14, and then to the chemistry of fluorine using isotopes 38Cl and 18F
. In January 1972 in Fort Lauderdale, . Florida, . Rowland was the report from the English scientist Jim Lovelock (Jim Lovelock) on the recently made measurements of atmospheric concentrations of trace Freon SSl3F, . and instructed his assistant to investigate the fate of M. Molyneux freon in the atmosphere,
. Three months later, they realized that this is a serious problem in studying the environment. Molina and Rowland developed the theory of reduction of the ozone layer in the presence of freon. Basic provisions can be formulated as follows:
Freons - man-made components, which flow in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) is approximately equal to their industrial production.
Being extremely chemically stable in the troposphere, freon are very 'lifetime' (40-150 years). The only way to remove them from the troposphere is the slow transfer to the stratosphere.
In the stratosphere, they are photolysed shortwave UV radiation of the sun, releasing chlorine atoms.
Chlorine atoms attack the ozone molecules, destroying them and giving SlO chlorine oxide, which interacts with atomic oxygen, resulting in the newly formed Active chlorine - an important component of the cycle of ozone destruction.
Following their publication have been numerous attempts of mathematical modeling of the stratospheric ozone loss in the various 'scenarios' production of CFCs. It turns out that more or less realistic models require consideration of not less than 150 reactions involving about 50 different particles, since the chlorine atoms react not only with ozone, but also with molecules of water, methane, nitrogen oxides, etc..
In late 1974 the ozone problem has attracted public attention, in connection with which have been held many new scientific experiments, the hearing in the legislature, a broad discussion in the press. The ozone problem is closely related to important economic factors, and its solution required the adoption of international political decisions directly affecting the vital interests of many millions of people. They will remain in the memory of mankind as the first-ever large-scale agreements aimed at preventing disruption in the world of chemical equilibria.
That's what wrote on the subject Rowland: 'In many ways, the understanding of atmospheric chemistry is still in early stages. For two decades we have only come close to achieving the accuracy and sensitivity of instruments, . necessary to work with chemicals, . existing in such low concentrations, . and, . sure, . trace atmospheric composition varies greatly depending on the region ',
. 'The question of the ability of CFCs to reduce ozone layer is a good example of how not worked properly the problem difficult to solve' it right. However, it is obvious that the unrestricted manufacture and the exponential growth of content of freon in the atmosphere pose a real threat to the ozone layer of the Earth.
In 1995, Rowland, M. Molina, and J. Cruz became Nobel laureates 'for its work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in connection with the formation and destruction of ozone'. Their study stimulated the development of these relatively new scientific disciplines such as environmental chemistry and atmospheric chemistry.
And at school and at university, and graduate Rowland enthusiastically participated in sports, almost professionally playing basketball and baseball.