MAC-DIARMID Alan( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000)
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Biography MAC-DIARMID Alan
MAC-DIARMID, Alan (MacDiarmid, Alan) (p. 1927) (USA). Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000 (with A. Higuero and H. Shirakawa).
Born April 14, 1927 in g. Masterstone (New Zealand). His parents, Archibald and Ruby Makdiarmid reared. Much of the family life of a poor family was of the traditional features - mutual aid, and numerous family ties. The house had no telephone and fridge, but a lot of visitors and neighbors at the table posizhivalo.
Learn it started with other young tribesmen in the two-room village school, Keri-Keri, with its 600 inhabitants. Then he was in high school Hutt Valley in Wellington. His father had retired, when Alan was 16 years old, and he had to leave school. We had to earn bread, and he became a gofer at the Department of Chemistry, University College, Victoria. Then he was able to listen to two lecture courses - in chemistry and mathematics. He began to live in a student dormitory at polustudencheskih rights, but in the end, got a degree and became a lecture demonstrator.
Chemistry caught him at the age of 10, when he found an old textbook, which does not understand, and turned to the library books in chemistry for students. Further experience picked up, carrying out lecture demonstrations. Those color effects that were seen, became, in his opinion, the key to choosing a profession. Then came the first time and research, the result of which was his first article (1949).
In 1950, Mac-Diarmidu Fullbraytovskaya was given a scholarship to carry out dissertation at Wisconsin universities (USA). Under the direction of Norris Hall, he studied the rate of exchange of ligands in the cyanide complexes.
After this he again received a scholarship - now for the post-dissertation fellowships for the study of silanes in (Cambridge University). This was followed by post at Queen's College, University of SW. Andrew and Scotland, and, finally, he became a lecturer and then Professor of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania (USA).
In Pennsylvania universtete Mc Diarmid and his colleague at the University of A. Khiger engaged in setting the non-metallic conductors of electric current on the basis of inorganic. In 1975 Khiger said Mak-Diarmidu about a recent article by Mort Labesa, in which he described a highly conducting polymer material of general formula (SN) x. It turns out that even in the 1950 Mac-Diarmid synthesized compound S4N4. At the request of Higuero Mc Diarmid synthesized the compound of formula (SN) x, and they systematically investigated their properties.
During the visit Mac-Diarmida at Kyoto University, where he worked H. Shirakawa, engaged in polymerization of acetylene, they exchanged their samples of polyacetylene (CH) x and (SN) x. It was during this visit was an error intern Shirakawa, which led to obtaining silver polyacetylene. As a result, the synthesis of polyacetylene accumulates in the reaction flask in the form of unremarkable black powder. One trainee accidentally added a thousandfold excess of catalyst compared with its usual amount (in grams instead of milligrams quantities). To the surprise of the experimenters on the surface of the liquid formed a beautiful silver foil. Immediately came the obvious question: 'If the resulting plastic its luster similar to the metal, if he could, and conduct electricity? ".
Mac-Diarmid, and Shirakawa decided to join forces. Shirakawa for the year came to the University of Pennsylvania, where they were joined Khiger. Already in the first experiments, they were able to slightly increase the electrical conductivity of polyacetylene. The method also increases the electrical conductivity of the polymer in 10 000 000 times was unexpectedly easy -. should only handle a film of the polymer pairs bromine or iodine. Thus was created a polymer that has electrical conductivity of metals.
However, although cooked so polyacetylene and is comparable to the electrical conductivity of many metals, unfortunately, it can not be used in practice, tk. in contact with air it quickly loses this ability. As a result, finding the best options were new conjugated polymers, for example, Polypyrrole, polyaniline and Polythiophene.
The idea to combine the ability to light and forming a low proportion of polymers with the electrical conductivity of metals has received intensive development. Since the electrical conductivity can be changed within wide limits, . the level of semiconducting properties to the conductive metal, . became apparent potential commercial aspects of usage: battery, . Capacitors, . antistatic, . anticorrosive materials, etc.,
It is now the most intensive development due to the transfer of polymers in solid-state. This is caused by the recent discovery - some conjugated polymers exhibit electroluminescent properties - they shine when they pass through the electric current. Fluorescent materials may have many uses. Soon you will see their first practical use of light displays, mobile phones and a message board. Not long to wait when they become a reality television screens of the fluorescent plastic.
Process that causes electroluminescence can be called - the absorption of light will create a charge and, consequently, electric current. This is the principle of solar. The advantages of plastics are large and made of a flexible surface which is not so difficult and expensive cost. Solar plastic elements are needed in various areas, and they will have the broadest application in the very near future.
In 2000, Mac-Diarmid, A. Khiger and H. Shirakawa won the Nobel Prize 'for the discovery and development of polymer-conductors'.
Mc Diarmid continues to work professor at the University of Pennsylvania.