GORCHAKOV Nikolai Mikhailovich( Russian director and teacher)
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Biography GORCHAKOV Nikolai Mikhailovich
Gorchakov, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1898-1958), Russian director and teacher. Honored Worker of Arts (1943), Doctor of Arts. Born August 7, 1898. Started in the 3rd Moscow Art Theater Studio, was a student Vakhtangov. Since 1922 he worked in the studio director, has put in his own staging who had great success the play "The Battle of Life" by Charles Dickens (1924). Led a group of the Studio abraded Vakhtangov studio, in 1924 moved to the Moscow Art Theater, and with korretivami Stanislavsky's performance came in the repertoire of the Moscow Art Theater. Gorchakov, Stanislavsky attracted to work on the restoration of the play "Woe from Wit" (1925). Under the direction of Stanislavsky Gorchakov issued melodrama "Sisters Gerard". Put cheerful lyrical farce Katayeva "Squaring the circle" (1928, played 646 times, the artistic director Vl.I.Nemirovich-Danchenko), carried staging N. Pogodin "audacity". Participated in the production of "Three Fat Men Olesha (1930, lasted one season), plays Virta" Earth "(1937). Independent performance Gorchakov "Moliere" by Mikhail Bulgakov (1936) was excluded from the repertoire.
In 1933, Gorchakov was appointed artistic director of Moscow Theater of Satire. The repertoire when it became a Soviet comedy. He continued his creative relationships with playwrights Kataev and V. Shkvarkin, attracted new sponsors - Pogodin, A. Tolstoy, M. Levidov, B. Kirshon, etc.. The huge success of the play had "Chori Chori Chupke Chupke" Shkvarkin (1933; Joint with RG corfu). Management and staff of the Theater of Satire worried that Gorchakov continued to work in the Moscow Art Theater, they made his departure from the Moscow Art Theater. Directed painfully experienced separation from the Moscow Art Theater. In the first year of the Great Patriotic War, Gorchakov organized only if Moscow Dramatic Theater (Moscow Theater of Drama), where the audience first saw the "Russian people" Simonov and "Front" Korneichuk. In 1943, the Committee on the Arts Drama and joined the revolution, appointing the head of NP Okhlopkova; Gorchakov was invited to return to the Theater of Satire. A request to change the name of the theater on the 'Theater of Comedy', he was denied. In the theater Gorchakov put the "evil spirits" by A. Tolstoy, warmly adopted by the press and spectators, issued an "Emergency Law" Brothers Tour and L. Sheinin. The latter had no success, the play was condemned in the decree of the Central Committee 'on the repertoire of dramatic theater'. The successful staging of the play was Korneychuck "The mission of Mr. Perkins in the country of the Bolsheviks" (1944).
In 1948, Gorchakov resigned from the Theater of Satire, staying at the Art Theater. 'Masterpiece of grace and irony' was called his statement "The School for Scandal R.B. By Sheridan (1940, Joint. with V. Sakhnovsky and artist N. Akimov, starring M. Yanshin and O. Androvskaya). In 1946 the Moscow Art Theater presented the premiere of "naval officers" with A. Kron M. Boldumanom in the title role (the State Prize, 1946). In "Late Love" by Alexander Ostrovsky (1949), "Autumn Garden" by L. Hellman and the Restless old age "AL Rakhmanov (both 1956) clearly manifested especially directorial manners Gorchakov - a sense of style and a sense of modernity. "Late Love", a chamber performance with MM Yanshin as Margaritovo, lasted in the repertory of the Moscow Art Theater 25 years, until 1974.
From their teachers Stanislavsky and Vahtangova Gorchakov mastered the ability to build the track, genre and find the exact solution, it is an excellent understanding of the play, reviewed theater. In 1952 he was awarded the State Prize for his book "Directing lessons Stanislavsky". Author teatrovedcheskih work, skillful instsenirovschik, Gorchakov was a member of the Writers' Union. Since 1939 - Professor and Head of the Department of directing in GITIS, taught at the Moscow Art Theater School.
Gorchakov, died Aug. 28, 1958.