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( French writer)

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Biography Stendhal
Stendhal (Stendhal; pseudo., Present. name - Marie Henri Beyle, Beyle) (1783-1842), French writer. Born January 23, 1783 in Grenoble in the family of average means. Impressions childhood later echoed in the views and paradoxes of the mature writer. In all the major novels of Stendhal's a theme plot of young, full of life against the stupid and oppressive elders. This Beyle was not a democrat, shied away from the common people, to seek the company of princes, cardinals and duchesses, but as an alias used a fake title ( 'Baron de Stendhal'). Correct to call it a revolutionary aristocrat, a snob with republican beliefs.

In school Beyle intensively studied geometry, seeing it as the only opportunity to go from Grenoble and escape from the power of the father. At sixteen he managed to get permission to enter the Paris Ecole Polytechnique. In May 1800 enlisted in the army. Participation in the Italian campaign of 1800-1802 have had a decisive influence. Youth, freedom, love, danger and music gave him the tide of enthusiasm, and a passionate attachment to the Italian people, he retained until his death.

During the Napoleonic campaigns Beyle served as Quartermaster Corps officer, and undoubtedly exaggerated the horrors they experienced. He often took an indirect part in many major battles, including the Borodino, and during the retreat from Moscow, showed courage and firmness of spirit. However, the Inland his warehouse, he was not fit for either military service or for bureaucratic careers. When in 1814 Napoleon abdicated, Beyle almost gladly went to Italy to take up literary work.

The book "Rome, Naples and Florence" (Rome, Naples et Florence, 1817) was published under the pseudonym Stendhal and found him enthusiastic amateurism; travel impressions are mixed here with a lightweight social and aesthetic criticism. But later, in his treatise "On Love" (De l'amour, 1822), Stendhal's apparent propensity for self-analysis. As in his great novels, frank reverie accompanied here dry exposures mad analyzing the propensity to dream.

Forced to leave Milan at the insistence of the Austrian police, who rightly suspected him of having links with the Carbonari, Stendhal returned to Paris and began to earn a living working in newspapers and magazines. He issued a pamphlet in defense of the Romantics "Racine and Shakespeare" (Racine et Shakespeare, . 1823), written in haste biography Rossini (also published in 1823) amounted to guide "Walks in Rome" (Promenades dans Rome, . 1829) and a series of review articles, . appeared without the author's name in French and English journals (in translation),

His first attempt at fiction was the novel Armance "(Armance, 1827). The next novel, "Red and Black" (Le rouge et le noir, 1831), fully disclosed his writing capabilities. The prototype of Julien Sorel was a young provincial Antoine Bertha, who in 1827 was convicted and executed for the murder of his mistress. Criminal episode chronicles appeared Stendhal tragedy talented individual, not yet found the application of their abilities and energy in the era of the Restoration (the time of the book - roughly 1826-1830).

The July Revolution of 1830 freed from Stendhal's financial difficulties: he was able to re-enter public service. Free time, he completely gave creativity. Conceived in the three-volume novel was left after the first two books, a satire on the French politicians, practicing the principle of 'middle ground', was named Lucien Leuven "(Lucien Leuwen, 1834-1836; publ. completely in 1929) - on behalf of the protagonist. Lamel (Lamiel, 1839-1842; publ. completely in 1928), a comic novel about the development of feelings, wonderful girl, and was not completed, left some of his editorial. Stendhal issued a set of "Italian Chronicles" (Les chroniques italiennes, . 1837-1839) on the basis of Renaissance manuscripts and pamphlets, . he found in Rome ( "Vittoria Akkoramboni", . Family Cenci ", . "The Duchess de Palliano and others"); wrote several autobiographical books, . of which the best - "Life of Henri Bryulara" (Vie d'Henri Brulard, . 1835; publ,
. 1890), during their many vacations traveling to France and later published a reflection on his native country under the title "Notes of a tourist" (Memoires d'un touriste, 1838). Finally, in a wonderful burst of inspiration, it is for 52 days, created his masterpiece - "abode of Parma" (La Chartreuse de Parme, 1839). One of the greatest discoveries of the novel are battle scenes. Battle of Waterloo seen by the eyes of its members is almost accidental, inexperienced, confused young man, unable to connect and make sense of its individual episodes. New thou shalt put the war in Stendhal and their dependence on him and pointed out by Leo Tolstoy, and Ernest Hemingway. Impetus novel gave the Italian chronicles, describing the early years of Alexander Farnese, later Pope Paul III, as well as some of the circumstances of life of the sculptor and writer B. Cellini. However, it is a deeply modern novel (his action is completed in early 1830), which draws a post-revolutionary revival of despotism. Balzac wrote a glowing article about the novel, especially highly appreciated only in the works of Stendhal's battle scenes. Stendhal died in Paris on 22 March 1842.

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