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( Patriarch of Russia)

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Biography Filaret
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Filaret - Patriarch of Russia, the world's Theodore, the eldest son of boyar Nikita Romanovich. It is believed that he was born from his second marriage Nikita Romanovich, between 1554 and 1560, Mr.. As a child he received a good education and learned the Latin language, even for assembly of the Latin expressions, written for his Slavic letters an Englishman. Uncle King Theodore, . inquisitive and well read, . cheerful and friendly, . beautiful and clever, . connecting love for books with a love of entertainment and attire, . He played a prominent role in youth, . using the same popular among fellow, . and the foreigners,
. He married the daughter of a poor nobleman Kostroma Xenia Ivanovna Shestova and had 5 of her sons and one daughter. Of all his children survived only son Michael, who was elected to the throne. In 1586, Mr.. Fiefdom. Nick. referred to as the lord and governor of Nizhny Novgorod, in 1590, Mr.. participates in the courtyard as a governor in a campaign against Sweden in 1593 - 94 g. is governor of Pskov, and is in talks with the Ambassador of pulses. Rudolf Warkotsch. In 1596, Mr.. is voivod in the right hand. From 90-ies came to us several parochial affairs concerning Fiefdom. Nick. and portrays his influential position among the Moscow nobility. The death of King Theodore popular rumor called Fiefdom. Nick. nearest lawful heir to the throne, in Moscow there were rumors that the late king before his death directly appointed him as his successor. Fight Godunov, sitting on the kingdom, was justified in front of him referring to the popular election and gave him an oath to keep his chief adviser in public administration. Did very Fiefdom. Nick. plans for accession to the throne, is unknown, in Kolomna the palace, however, found his portrait in royal robes, with the caption "Tsar Fyodor Mikitich Romanov". In any case, he signed on to the election of Boris Certificate. In 1601, during the defeat of the names of the Romanovs, Boris, Fiefdom. Nick. a monk under the name S. and sent to the St. Anthony of Siya Monastery; his wife, trimmed under the name of Martha, exiled in Zaonezhskie cemeteries, and young son Michael and daughter sharpened on Byelozero with her aunt Nastasia Nikitichna. Life F. the monastery was furnished with very severely: Usher cut short all his relations with the surrounding population, and afflict them with their rough soglyadataystvom and petty harassment, complaining at the same time in Moscow for his sharp and passionate temper. With the advent in 1605, Mr.. news of the movements in the mood Falsdmitry F. was observed abrupt change: he cheered loudly and began to express hope for a speedy revolution in their destiny. June 30, 1605, Mr.. Lzhedmitry elevated F. the rank of Metropolitan of Rostov. It seems that F. rarely comes over to their metropolitan living since then mostly in Moscow. On the accession of Basil Shuisky F. went to Uglich discover the power of Tsarevich Dmitry. In 1609, Mr.. Rostov was attacked by men of Tushino, F., shut up with the people in the cathedral, was arrested and, after various shame, with shame sent to Tushino. However, Tushino thief on his imaginary kinship with the FA, appointed him Patriarch of All Russia. As the betrothed of the patriarch F. sent letters on church affairs in the region recognize the power of the Tushino thief, and after fleeing thief in Kaluga men of Tushino involved in the negotiations with the Polish king to invite the latter, or his son to the Russian throne. When Rozhen, in March 1610, burned Tushino detachment of Polish men of Tushino, retreat to the monastery of Joseph Volokolamskoe, seized with him, and F. Only by smashing the detachment Russian army F. got freedom and rode off in Moscow. By overthrowing Shuisky F., at the direction е¦цЁе-kiewski, who wanted to remove it from Moscow's most influential figures, was appointed along with Prince. Golitsyn to the embassy to Sigismund, to conclude a treaty of accession to the Russian throne Prince Ladislas. 7 October after coming to Smolensk. Negotiations continued till April 12, did not lead to anything, but after receiving news of the approach to Moscow militia Lyapunov, Trubetskoy and Zarutsky ambassadors were arrested. F. remained in captivity by the Poles to 1619g., while living in the house Sapieha. Apparently, already immediately after the accession of Mikhail Fiefdom. was decided in the election of S. the patriarchate. Even before the return of F. from captivity, he was named in government regulations and the church not antimension Metropolitan of Rostov and All Russia. After the armistice Deulino June 1, 1619, on the river. Polyanovke for Vyazma have committed the changing of prisoners; F. was exchanged for Polish colonel jet. June 14 F. had entered the city triumphantly greeted son. At the same time formed in Moscow folk song, dedicated to this event. A few days later the cathedral of the Russian clergy suggested that F. San patriarch, and 24 June F. focused. With rank of patriarch F. combined rank of the great sovereign, than rise to the highest degree of public importance patriarchy. Established this duality: the king and the patriarch, both wrote to the Emperor; government affairs were discussed in the two sovereigns, and sometimes F. solved them alone, even without the knowledge of the king. As ruler F. proved to be tough, overbearing and opalchivym ". He quickly curbed willfulness of people approach the throne of his absence to his son,. subjected to disgrace Saltykov, willfully greater distance from the king of his bride Khlopova, Gramotin etc.. At the cathedral in 1619, Mr.. He raised the question of drawing up new scribe and patrol the books and to call to Moscow elected people from the clergy, the nobility and townspeople for the filing of applications for local needs of the population. He led the diplomatic relations and, incidentally, was "steganography", t. e. code for diplomatic papers. Patriarchal activity F. consisted of vigorous protection of the purity of Orthodoxy in the development of the printing of liturgical books and in the reform of church administration. Severe persecution of religious dissent, and moral depravity reflected in the measures taken against the book. Khvorostinin, . to order the cessation of fisticuffs, . unholy swarms, . chetverobrachiya, . some pagan rites (Clicking caroling, . ovsenya), . in the charters of the archbishop and the Siberian Solovki monastery on the evils and indecent life of the laity and monks,
. Often in their measures to protect the purity of Orthodoxy F., for lack of theological education, was crossing the border need to. For example, he persistently demanded the crossing turn to the Orthodox and the Latins in 1620, Mr.. the cathedral clergy condemned the opinion Krutitsa Mitropa. Jonah, who was in these cases sufficient to commit one of Anointing. At the same time V. found crossing Belarus, coming out of Poland and Lithuania, even though they considered it the Orthodox. In 1627, Mr.. on the order of F. burned "didactic gospel" Cyril Trankvilliona Stavrovetskogo, did not contain essentially nothing heretical, and initiated the persecution of Lithuanian books circulating in Russian churches. At the same time was printed catechism Lawrence Zizaniya Tustanevskogo, after a very petty and picky edits and a few debates, arranged between Zizaniem and Abbot Ilya and spravschikom Onisimova. Printing and correct books F. paid much attention. At the very beginning of his reign F., . on the proposal of Patriarch Theophanes of Jerusalem, . filed a retrial on spravschikah Dionysia, . Arseny and Ivan Clockers, . shortly before the accused to the exclusion of the breviary words: fire and in prayer for the Epiphany,
. Cathedral, in the presence of AF, Theophanes and the emperor, justified spravschikov, and upon receipt of explanatory letters from the other patriarchs of gain: and the fire was finally removed from the Book of Needs. In 1620, Mr.. F. resumed printing at Nikolskaya, . the old hard court, . and arranged a special room ( "right") to work spravschikov, . and also marked the beginning of the famous later printing library, . making an order delivered there from the cities of the ancient harateynyh books,
. Moscow Printing at V. produced many publications - all 12 of the Saints and the monthly number of liturgical books, some publications were to testify by the F. When printing pays much attention to correcting the text, for which F. should involve more educated spravschikov was compared with the texts of ancient Slavic manuscripts, and in some (rare) cases - and with Greek. Books distributed to the cities, in churches, monasteries and trade stalls at the price at which the cost of the printing, without profit, and in Siberia - gratis. In 1622, Mr.. F. published "The Legend of effective ranks St.. Congregational Church of the Assumption of St.. Virgin, T. e. charter holiday services for the administration of church celebrations, . and "Instruction of the great master to questions metropolitans, . archbishops and bishops ", he is credited with" Instructions to questions archimandrites, . abbots and priests "and" Instruction Superior ",
. F. cared about the plantation school, urged bishops to establish schools in the episcopal houses and myself started in the Miracle Monastery grekolatinskoe school, assigned Arseny deaf. In 1632, Mr.. arrived in Moscow protosingel Alexandrian patriarch Joseph was on F. in Moscow for the transfer of books and equipment for the Greek School. An important activity should remain V. in the field of church administration. Yard patriarch settled with him completely on the model of the sovereign's court, organized the class patriarchal nobles and knights, impose the Local salaries. Patriarchal estate purchases have increased significantly and royal awards. The power of the patriarch of the population of these estates has been extended royal charter May 20, 1625, . which destroy all previous criminal record certificates of individual churches and monasteries of the patriarch and the patriarch received the right to judge and be in charge of the spiritual and the peasant population of this area in all matters, . except tatby and robbery,
. Office patriarchal region is clothed with F. in the correct form, similar to the secular public institutions. There are patriarchal orders: 1) the vessel or level - for the trials, 2) the order of church affairs - for the church decorum, 3) state-owned - charge fees for the clergy, and 4) the palace - the economy was headed by the patriarch's estates. Each order sat patriarchal lord, with the clerks and clerks. The cases were solved with the report of the Patriarch. Vigorous activity ustroitelnaya F. not limited odnoyu patriarchal domain. Throughout the state produced detailed descriptions of the church and monastery property, review and confirmation of the grant of letters patent issued by the monasteries and their lands new award. In 1620, Mr.. opened a new Tobolsk diocese. When F. took the canonization of two saints - Makarios Unzhenskogo (1619) and Abraham, episk. chuhlomskogo and Galicia (1621), as well as despatch in 1625, Mr.. Shah of Persia of the Lord's robe, which was placed in the ark in the Assumption Cathedral. When F. resume the interrupted in the age of distemper relations between Moscow and the Greek and Eastern Orthodox churches and the arrival in Moscow for the charity of many of the clergy of these churches. F. died Oct. 1. 1633, with about 80 years old. See. Smirnov, "Filaret Romanov Nikitich His Holiness Patriarch of All the Russias" (the "Society of the Readings lovers spiritual enlightenment", 1873 - 74 years.).

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