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Nobel nanotechnology: why the world is grateful to academician Alferov


On 89-m to year of life died an outstanding Russian physicist, Nobel prize winner, people's choice And Public figure, Academician Zhores Alferov. His work in the field of semiconductor heterostructures has revolutionized microelectronics, laser technology, gave the world the Internet, quantum devices.

Way Zhores Alferov to the heights of world science typical for the Soviet time. He was born in a family of technical intelligentsia on the outskirts of the USSR, Vitebsk, early showed abilities to the exact Sciences, graduated school With a gold medal And Without an exam joined the faculty of electronic engineering of the Leningrad electrotechnical Institute named after V. I. Ulyanov.

Zhores Alferov worked at the Physico-technical Institute imeni A. F. Ioffe, where in the 1930s years was engaged in semiconductor heterostructures with artificial materials made of several layers of different composition, between which there is an exchange of electrons And " holes ". Our scientists for the first time found that the double heterostructure of gallium arsenide it is possible to create lasers a completely new generation, registered a patent.

in those years, but only a few believed that it is possible to grow the perfect structures Without any defects of surfaces suitable for lasers. Physicists for a long time failed to obtain material of the desired quality.

Method of gas epitaxy, which were grown heterostructures is very time - consuming. The connection must first vaporize to a gaseous wealth, then on the substrate to precipitate layer by layer, literally poutana. Characteristics are chosen experimentally. Technology development takes time.

A breakthrough occurred in the late 1960s, when scientists have perfected a method of growing heterostructures And in the United States invented molecular-beam epitaxy. Since that time, the direction began to develop rapidly in the world, there is a high competition one way or another, the palm was the Soviet physicists Under the direction of Zhores Alferov.

in 2000, Zhores Alferov And the German scientist Herbert Kremer, who have independently conducted work in the field of lasers based on semiconductor heterostructures, was awarded the Nobel prize in physics.

because their work has appeared not less sophisticated semiconductor materials based on them - a large variety of lasers operating under the most different conditions, LEDs, bipolar transistors, solar cells for solar panels.

Without semiconductor heterostructures, a pioneer in the creation of which was Zhores Alferov, embedded in modern life. They are working memory systems in computers, satellite television, orbital devices, Internet, appliances.

Zhores Alferov through all life has carried by love to the native of Belarus. Often been there, met With President Alexander Lukashenko.

The parents named their son in honor of the French socialist Jean jaurц?s, And older brother Marx, in honor of the classics of scientific communism. During the war, Juarez was still a schoolboy, And brother went to the front and participated in the Stalingrad And Kursk battles, And died in 1944 during the Korsun-Shevchenko operation.

The death of his elder brother threw in the shower of the future scientist deep trauma. He met His colleagues, looking for any traces associated With the presence of the brother at the front. In 1956 Alferov found a mass grave in the village khyl'ky, Kyiv region, where Marx is buried, And Since then occasionally visited her. Brother, family, childhood And wartime is dedicated to the many chapters in His books-memoirs.

Socio-political Zhores Alferov known for More than Its scientific merits. In 1989 he was elected people's people's Deputy of the USSR, And then the Deputy of the State Duma from the Communist party. He founded Academic University in Physical-technical Institute named after Ioffe in St. Petersburg, which is now the leader in number of citations in their field.

Under the leadership Alferov began his own career in science by the former head of the Ministry of education And science, now assistant to the President of the Russian Federation Andrey Fursenko, the Founder of the Bank "Russia" And "National Media Group" Yuri Kovalchuk.

Academician Alferov critical of the policy in the field of science, requiring more attention to research by country, pointing out that Science is unclaimed in the economy, under-funded.

The intransigence Zhores Alferov took during the reform of the Academy of Sciences in 2013. Due to disagreements With the reigning Minister Dmitry Livanov Academician demonstratively left the Public Council under the Ministry of education And science, openly opposed the Minister From the rostrum. His views on the fate of Russian science, the history of microelectronics, He outlined in the book " Physics And life ", " Science And society ", " Power with No brain ".



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