October 21, 1833, Mr.. - December 10, 1896
. Alfred Nobel
, . Swedish chemist and businessman experimenter, . the inventor of dynamite and other explosives, . wished to establish a charitable fund for awarding prize his name, . has brought him posthumous fame, . unbelievably contradictory and paradoxical behavior,
. Contemporaries believed that he was not the image of a prosperous capitalist era of rapid industrial development of 2 nd half of XIX century. Nobel
drawn to solitude, rest, could not tolerate the urban bustle, though most of his life he was to spend it in the urban environment, and he also traveled frequently. Unlike many contemporary business tycoons Nobel
peace could soon be called 'Spartan', t. to. He never smoked, did not drink alcohol, avoid cards and other gambling games.
. Despite Swedish origin, he was more of a cosmopolitan European-style, express themselves well in French, German, Russian and English languages, as if they were his relatives
. Commercial and industrial activities Nobel
could not prevent the creation of his efforts of the largest libraries, . where one could read the writings of such authors, . Herbert Spencer, . English philosopher, . supporter of the introduction of the Darwinian theory of evolution in the laws of human existence, . Voltaire, . Shakespeare and other famous authors,
. Among the writers of the XIX century. Nobel
most singled out the French writers, . He admired the novelist and poet Victor Hugo, . master of the short story by Guy de Maupassant, . outstanding novelist Honore de Balzac, . from the sharp eyes which she could not escape the human comedy, . and the poet Alphonse Lamartine.,
. He loved to work refined the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev and the Norwegian dramatist and poet Henrik Ibsen
. Naturalistic motifs of the French novelist Emile Zola nevertheless not inflamed his imagination. Besides. He was impressed Poetry Percy Bysshe Shelley, whose works even awakened in him the intention to devote himself to literary work. By this time he wrote a considerable number of plays, novels and poems, of which, incidentally, was published only one work. But then he lost interest in studies of literature, and directed all his thoughts to the career of the chemist. Nobel
would not be worth as amuse his younger companions actions earned him a reputation as a keen advocate of liberal social views. There was even the view that he is a socialist. that in fact it was simply not true, because he was a conservative in economics and politics, all the forces opposed women's suffrage and expressed serious doubts about the benefits of democracy. Nevertheless, few people believed in both the political wisdom of the masses, few people so despised tyranny. As an employer of hundreds of workers, he showed just fatherly care about their health and well-being, not wishing nonetheless to establish personal contact with anyone whatsoever. With his characteristic insight, he came to the conclusion that the labor force with a high moral character more powerful than the grossly exploited masses, it might have earned the Nobel
reputation as a socialist.
was very undemanding in life and even in something ascetic
. He did not who to trust and never kept a diary. Even at the dinner table and among friends, he was only a careful listener, equally polite and sensitive to all. Dinners, which he arranged at his home in one of the fashionable districts of Paris, was festive and elegant at the same time: he was a hospitable host, and an interesting conversationalist, able to cause any visitor on a fascinating conversation. When circumstances demanded, . he had no trouble to use his sharpened wit, sarcasm, . as, . example, . demonstrates one of his fleeting remark: 'All the French are in the happy confidence, . that mental abilities - exclusively French heritage '.,
. He was a slender man of medium height, dark hair, with dark blue eyes and a beard
. In the fashion of the time he wore a pince-nez on a black cord.
Not having good health, Nobel
sometimes naughty, retreated and been in a depressed mood. He could work very hard, but then barely reached healthful rest. He traveled frequently, trying to use the healing power of different resorts with mineral springs, which was at that time a popular and accepted part of health maintenance regime. One of his favorite places was the source in Ischl, in Austria, where he even had a small boat. He also liked to visit in Baden-bai-Vin, near Vienna, where he met Sophie and Hess. In 1876, Mr.. She was a charming miniature 20-year-old girl - he's at that time was 43. There was nothing surprising in the fact that the Nobel
fell in love with 'Sofishhen' florist shop assistant, took with him to Paris and gave it the apartment. A young woman calling herself Madame Nobel
, but years later somehow dropped, that if something and associates, it is financial assistance from him. Their relationship finally ended around 1891, several years before the death of Nobel
Despite the weakness of their health Nobel
was able to leave with his head in hard work. He had a great turn of mind researcher and loved classes at the chemical laboratory. Nobel
managed its far-flung industrial empire with the help of an entire 'team' of Directors of numerous independent of each other's companies, in which Nobel
had 20 ... 30 per cent share of capital. Despite the relatively modest financial interest Nobel
personally looked through the many details of major decisions by companies that use its name in its name. According to one of his biographers, . 'except for scientific and commercial, . Nobel
spend a lot of time to conduct extensive correspondence, . with every detail of business correspondence, he copied only the, . starting with ending with billing and maintenance of accounting '.,
. In early 1876, . wishing to employ a housekeeper and personal secretary in combination, . He gave an advertisement in one of the Austrian newspaper: 'wealthy and highly educated elderly gentleman, . living in Paris, . willing to hire a person of mature age with language skills to work as a secretary and housekeeper ',
. One response to the announcement was a 33-year-old Bertha Kinsky, who worked at that time in Vienna governess. Determined, she went to Paris for an interview and was impressed by Nobel
their appearance and speed of translation. But just a week homesickness called her back to Vienna, where she married Baron Arthur von Suttner, the son of his former mistress. But she was destined to meet again with the Nobel
, and the last 10 years of his life, they corresponded, discussed the project of strengthening peace on Earth. Bertha von Suttner became a leading figure in the struggle for peace on the European continent, thanks in no small measure contributed to the financial support of motion Nobel
. She was awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize 1905
Last five years of life, Nobel
worked with a personal assistant, Ragnar Solmanom, a young Swedish chemist, is extremely tactful and patient. Solman also served as secretary and laboratory assistant. The young man managed to please the Nobel
and win their confidence so much that he invited him to none other than the 'top performer of their desires'. 'It was not always easy to serve as his assistant, - recalled Solman - he was demanding in their requests, frank and always seemed impatient. Everybody who had a business with him should be a buck to keep pace with his racing thoughts and be ready for the most amazing of his whims when he suddenly appeared and just as quickly disappear. "
. When Nobel
's life often displayed extraordinary generosity towards Solmanu and his other employees
. When his assistant met to marry, Nobel
immediately doubled his salary, and earlier, when she married his cook, a Frenchwoman, he gave her the gift of 40 thousand. francs, an enormous sum for those days. However charity Nobel
often went beyond his personal and professional contacts. Thus, ignoring zealous parishioner, he often donated money to the activities of the Paris branch of the Swedish Church in France, where a pastor in the early 90-ies. last century was SцTderblom Nathan, who became later the Archbishop of the Lutheran church in Sweden and was awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1930
. Although the Nobel
and is often called the king of dynamite, he strongly opposed the use of their discoveries for military purposes
. 'For its part, . - He said three years before his death, . - I wish, . all guns with all their supplies and workers could be send to hell, . that is, in the most appropriate place for them, . that they could flaunt and use ',
. On another occasion he said that war is a 'horror of horrors, and the most terrible crime', and then added: "I would like to invent a substance or a car, possessing a destructive power that every war in general has become impossible."
. Dizzying career of Alfred Nobel
became even more significant when we look to the humble origins of his surname, which has a peasant background
. For information about her appear out of nothingness with the addition of nicknames Nobelius
only at the end of XVII. Father Alfred
, barber-krovopuskatel, shortened his name in 1775, Mr.. His eldest son, Emmanuel (1801 ... 1872), became the father of Alfred
. Emanuel, the architect, builder and inventor, odd jobs for several years, until his family decided to try to find happiness in Russia, the oil industry in Baku. In 1827, Mr.. He married Caroline Andriette Alsel (1803 ... 1879), they had eight children, only three of which survived until the teenage years: Robert, Ludwig and Alfred
was born Oct. 21, 1833, Mr.. in Stockholm and was the fourth child in the family. He was born very weak, and his childhood was marked by numerous diseases. In his teenage years Alfred
had a close and warm relationship with his mother, who remained so in later years: he often visited his mother and maintained a lively correspondence with her.
. After unsuccessful attempts to organize its work to produce elastic fabric for Emmanuel came hard times, . and in 1837, . leaving his family in Sweden, . He went first to Finland, . and then - in St. Petersburg, . where quite actively engaged in the production of the charged powder explosive compositions min, . lathes and machine tool accessories,
. In October 1842, when Alfred
was 9 years old, his family came to her father in Russia, where increased wealth allowed to hire a private tutor for the boy. He has shown himself an industrious student, and capable of showing a desire for knowledge, especially the chemistry carried away.
. In 1850, when Alfred
had reached the age of 17, he went on a long journey to Europe, during which visited Germany, France, and then the United States of America
. In Paris, he continued to study chemistry, and in the United States met with John Ericsson, Swedish inventor of the steam engine, which was later drafted an armored military vehicle (so-called 'monitor').
. Returning to St. Petersburg three years later, . Alfred Nobel
began working in the company of his father 'Fonder e atelier mekanik Nobel
e Phee' ( 'Faunderiz End office rental shops Nobel
& Sons'), . the booming, . which specialized in the production of munitions during the Crimean War (1853 ... 1856),
. At the end of the war the company was reassigned to the production of machinery and parts for the ships being built for sailing in the Caspian Sea and Volga River. However, orders for peace-time was not enough to cover the gap in military orders, and by 1858. company was facing a financial crisis. Alfred
with his parents back in Stockholm, while Robert and Ludvig stayed in Russia to eliminate the case and save at least part of the investment. Returning to Sweden, Alfred
devoted all his time to mechanical and chemical experiments, obtained with three patents for inventions. This work was supported by his subsequent interest in experiments carried out in a small laboratory, which has equipped his father on his estate in the outskirts of the capital.
. At this time, the only explosives for the mines (regardless of their destination - in the military or peaceful purposes) was a black powder
. Nevertheless, it was already known that nitroglycerin in solid form is an extremely powerful explosive, the use of which involves an exceptional risk due to its isparimosti. Nobody at that time was unable to determine how to manage his detonation. After a brief experimentation with nitroglycerine Emmanuel Nobel
sent to Paris to find the source of funding for research (1861), his mission was successful, t. to. he managed to get a loan of 100 thousand. francs. Despite the entreaties of his father, Alfred
refused to participate in this project. But in 1863. he managed to invent a practical detonator, which included the use of gunpowder to explode nitroglycerine. This invention was one of the cornerstones of its reputation and welfare.
One of his biographers, Nobel
Eric Bergengren, describes the device as follows:
'In its original form ... [detonator] was designed in such a way, . that the initiation of the explosion of liquid nitroglycerin, . which was contained in a metal tank itself or has been filled in the channel core, . carried out the explosion of a smaller charge, . inserted under the main charge, . with smaller charge consisted of gunpowder, . enclosed in a wooden pencil box with a cork, . which was placed igniter '.,
. To enhance the effect, the inventor has repeatedly changed the details of construction, as well as a final improvement in 1865
. replace wooden pencil box metal capsule, stuffed with detonating mercury. The invention of the so-called exploding capsule in the technology explosion was based on the principle of the initial ignition. This phenomenon has been fundamental for all subsequent work in this area. The principle was turned into reality the effective use of nitroglycerin, and after - and other vaporized explosives as independent of explosive materials. Moreover, this principle is allowed to proceed to study the properties of explosive materials.
. In the process of improving the invention lab Emmanuel Nobel
suffered from the explosion, which claimed eight lives, was among the dead and a 21-year-old son, Emmanuel, Emil
. A short time later his father was stricken with paralysis, and the remaining eight years of his life before his death in 1872, Mr.. he spent in bed, in a stationary position.
Despite of hostility in society towards the production and use of nitroglycerine, Nobel
in October 1864. persuaded the board of the Swedish state railway designed to take them to the explosive to tunneling. In order to produce a substance he obtained financial support from the Swedish merchants: company was established 'Nitroglycerin, Ltd.. " and elevated plant. During the first years of existence Nobel
was Managing Director, Technologies, advertising agency, the Chief of Staff and Treasurer. He also arranged for visiting showcase their products. Among the customers means the Central Pacific Railroad (in the American West), which used produced by Nobel
nitroglycerin for laying the railway track through the mountains of Sierra Nevada. After obtaining a patent for invention in other countries, Nobel
founded the first of its foreign companies 'Alfred Nobel
's End To б¦' (Hamburg, 1865).
. While the Nobel
managed to resolve all major problems of industrial safety, his customers are sometimes shown negligence in the handling of explosives
. This led to accidental explosions and loss of life to some of the prohibitions on the importation of hazardous products. Despite this, the Nobel
has continued to expand his business. In 1866, Mr.. He received a patent in the U.S. and spent three months, obtaining funds for the Hamburg company and demonstrating its 'explodes butter'. Nobel
decided to found an American company, which, after some arrangements became known as the 'Atlantic dzhayent rouder K б¦' (after the death of Nobel
was acquired by 'E.I. DuPont de Nemours and K б¦ '). The inventor felt a cold reception from the American businessman who was eager to share his profits from companies that produce liquid explosive. Later he wrote: 'On reflection life in America seemed to me something unpleasant. Exaggerated desire to squeeze out profit - this is pedantry, which is able to dampen the joy of communicating with people and disrupt the sense of respect for them by presenting the true motives behind their activities'.
. Although Nitroglycerin explosives when used correctly is an effective material for blasting, . she so often been guilty of accidents (including one, . which flattened the factory in Hamburg), . that the Nobel
is constantly searching for ways to stabilize nitroglycerine,
. He suddenly came upon the idea to mix liquid nitroglycerin with a chemically inert, porous material. His first practical steps in this direction was the use of kieselguhr (diatomite), absorbent material. Be mixed with nitroglycerin, these materials can be laminated in the form of sticks and inserted into the drill hole. Patented in 1867, Mr.. new explosive material called 'dynamite, blasting powder or safe Nobel
. The new explosive is allowed to make such exciting projects, . as the laying of the Alpine tunnel at St. Gothard railway, . Remove underwater rocks in Hell Gate, . located in the East River (New York), . clearing of the Danube near the Iron Gate or laying the Corinth Canal in Greece,
. Dynamite was also a means for drilling at the Baku oil, . the latter company is famous, . two brothers Nobel
, . known for their activity and efficiency, . become so rich, . that they are not otherwise termed as 'Russian Rockefellers',
was the single largest investor in companies organized by his brothers.
. Although Alfred
had the patent rights to the dynamite and other materials (derived from the improvements), registered in the major countries in the 70-ies
. XIX century. He is constantly were harassing competitors who stole his technological secrets. During these years he refused to hire a secretary or legal counsel employed in the service of full-time, and therefore was forced to spend much time in litigation for infringement of its patent rights.
In the 70-and 80-ies. XIX century. Nobel
expanded its network of businesses in major European countries at the expense of their victory over their competitors and by forming cartels with rivals for control of prices and markets. Thus, he founded a chain of global enterprises as part of national corporations to manufacture and trade of explosives, adding to an improved new explosive dynamite. Military use of these substances began with the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 ... 1871. But in the continued life of Nobel
's study of explosive materials for military purposes had been loss-making enterprise. Tangible benefits from their risky projects, he received just due to the use of dynamite in the construction of tunnels, canals, railroads and highways.
. Describing the consequences of the fact the invention of dynamite for the most Nobel
, . Bergengren wrote: 'Not a day went, . that he did not have face to face with the vital issues: the financing and building companies, to attract good-faith partners and associates to managerial positions, . a suitable craftsmen and skilled workers - for the direct production, . which is extremely sensitive to maintaining the technology is fraught with a lot of risks; construction of new buildings at remote construction sites in compliance with intricate rules and safety regulations in accordance with the features of the legislation of each country,
. Inventor with all the ardor of the soul involved in the planning and implementation of new projects, but rarely ask for help from its staff in exploring the details of the various companies'.
. Biographer characterizes the ten-year life cycle Nobel
following the invention of dynamite, as 'troubled and exhausting all the nerves'
. After his move from Hamburg to Paris in 1873,. sometimes he could retire to his private laboratory, which occupied part of his house. To assist in this work, he drew George D. Ferenbaha, a young French chemist, who worked with him 18 years.
. If there was a choice, . Nobel
, . likely, . businesses would prefer their laboratory classes, . but his company demanded priority, . as to meet the increasing demand for the production of explosives had to build new businesses,
. In 1896, the year of Nobel
's death, there were 93 companies producing about 66.5 thousand. tons of explosives, including all its varieties, such as warheads and projectiles, smokeless powder, which Nobel
patented between 1887 and 1891 he. New explosives could be a substitute for black powder and was relatively inexpensive to manufacture.
. In organizing the market for smokeless powder (ballistita) Nobel
sold his patent to the Italian government authorities, which led to conflict with the Government of France
. He was accused of stealing explosives, depriving the French government a monopoly on it, in his laboratory was searched, and it was closed, and his company were also forbidden to produce ballistic. In these circumstances, in 1891, Mr.. Nobel
decided to leave France, founded his new residence in San Remo, located in the Italian Riviera. Even without the scandal ballistita could hardly be called the Paris years Nobel
rosy: his mother died in 1889, a year after the death of his older brother Ludwig. Moreover, the commercial activities of the Paris stage of the life of Nobel
jolt involving his questionable associations in the Paris speculation related to an unsuccessful attempt at laying the Panama Canal.
. At his villa in San Remo, overlooking the Mediterranean sea, drowning in orange trees, Nobel
built a small chemical laboratory, where he worked, as time allows
. Among other things, he experimented in the field of synthetic rubber and artificial silk. Nobel
loved the San Remo for its wonderful climate, but also kept warm memories of the land of ancestors. In 1894, Mr.. he bought ironworks in Vцгrmland, where at the same time built a manor house and got a new laboratory. The last two summers of his life he spent in Vцгrmland. In the summer of 1896. death of his brother Robert. At the same time, Nobel
began torturing pain in his heart.
On advice from experts in Paris, he was warned about the development of angina pectoris associated with inadequate supply of heart muscle with oxygen. He was recommended to go on vacation. Nobel
again moved to San Remo. He tried to complete unfinished business and left a handwritten entry burial wishes. After midnight on Dec. 10, 1896, Mr.. from a brain haemorrhage and died. Furthermore servants of the Italians who did not understand it, with the Nobel
was not one of the relatives at the time of withdrawal from life, and his last words were unknown.
. The origins of Nobel
's testament to the wording of the award of prizes for achievements in various fields of human activity leaves many uncertainties
. The document in its final form is one of the editions of his former wills. His bequest to the awarding of prizes in literature and science and technology flows logically from the interests of the Nobel
in contact with these aspects of human activity: physics, physiology, chemistry, literature. There is also evidence to suggest that the establishment of prizes for peace-keeping activities related to the desire of the inventor to celebrate the people who, like himself, is staunchly opposed to violence. In 1886. for example, he told his English friend, that is 'more and more serious intention to see peace shoots red roses in this world splitting'.
. As the inventor, who had a rich imagination, and a businessman, used in industrial and commercial interests of their ideas, Alfred Nobel
was a typical representative of his time
. The paradox is that he was a hermit seeking for solitude, and worldwide fame prevented obtaining appeasement in life, to which he so passionately sought.
. Nobel Prize and the Nobel Institute