Nobel in chemistry gave for cheating nature of light
The Nobel prize in chemistry for 2014 in Stockholm awarded for study superfluorescence microscopy scientist Eric Betzig, Stefan Hello and William Morner.
As said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, responsible for the award of merit, superfluorescent microscopy allows to study the structure of various objects on an extremely small scale. Eric Betzig, Stefan Hello and William Morner could, in theory, to trace the development of fluorescence microscopy with super-resolution".
If you try to translate it into Russian, the main achievement of the winners is that the methods created by scientists, received a collective title "Nanoscope": they allow us to consider the micro-objects, for example molecules inside cells, with a resolution of the order of nanometers. Earlier discoveries was that neither eye nor arbitrarily strong microscope cannot be considered something less than the wavelength of light. However scientists were insidious nature and invented to circumvent this difficulty.
Back in 2000, Stefan hell invented how to use a couple of lasers. 1 forced molecules to glow, and 2 "extinguished" glow everywhere, apart from negligible (nm) region. Therefore, the field of view is scanned many times, and the illustrations are collected final image. Regarding Bettiga and Merner, their method is based on the idea to enable and disable the glow of a single molecule or tightly connected to each other groups of molecules. As in the first case, the final illustration is collected from the constant repetition of the experience. The paper was published in 2006