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GUMILEV Nikolai Stepanovich

( Poet)

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Biography GUMILEV Nikolai Stepanovich
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GUMILEV Nikolai Stepanovich (1886 - 1921), poet, playwright. Born on April 15 (3 to the Julian calendar) in the Kronstadt naval family physician. Childhood years spent in Tsarskoe Selo, here in 1903 entered the school, whose director was the famous poet Ann I.. After graduating from high school went to Paris, the Sorbonne. By this time, Gumilev was already the author of the book "The Way conquistadores", noted one of the legislators of Russian Symbolism Bryusov. In Paris, published the magazine "Sirius" (which debuted Anna Akhmatova), attended the exhibition, became acquainted with the French and Russian writers, was in intensive correspondence Bryusov, who sent their poems, articles, stories.

During these years, he twice visited in Africa, where subsequently visited several times.

In 1908 a second book of the poet "Romantic Flowers" with a dedication to the future wife Anna Akhmatova (then Anna Gorenko). Returning to Russia, he settled in Tsarskoe Selo, was enrolled in the St. Petersburg University (studied law, then the history and philology), but the course did not finish. Included in the literary life of the capital, met with Voloshin, Kuzmin et al, published in various journals. Since 1909 became one of the key staff of "Apollo", leading to "Letters on Russian Poetry".

In the autumn of that year, sent on a long trip to Africa, returned to Russia in 1910, publishes poetry collection "Pearls" that made him famous poet. At the same time on April 25 to marry Alexander Stepanov (Anna Akhmatova). In the summer the young couple traveled to Paris in the autumn he again visited Africa, finally reaching the center of the continent - Abyssinia, to record local folklore, talked with local residents, acquainted with the life and art

. By 1911 - 1912 include a number of important developments in the literary biography Gumilev: Gorodetsky, organized together with the "Poets' Guild", . which originated in the bowels of the program of the new literary movement - acmeism; departing from Symbolism, . that was enshrined in article "Heritage of Symbolism and Acmeism",
.

1914 introduced a drastic change in the fate of Gumilev. Previously, forever freed from military service, he was in the early days of World War II, volunteered to go to the front, credited to the Life Guard Lancers. By the beginning of 1915 has already been awarded two crosses of St. George, in March 1916 promoted to corporals, transferred to 5-th Hussars regiment of Alexandria.

In May 1917 he is sent on a business trip to Salonica front, but does not get there, left in Paris. In January 1918, after the dissolution of the War Commissioner, to whom he was assigned, Gumilev went to London and from there returned to Russia. During the war did not stop literary work: it was published "Quiver", wrote the play "Gondla" and "Poisoned Tunic," a cycle of essays "Notes of a cavalryman, and others.

In 1918 - 1921 Gumilev was one of the most prominent figures in the literary life of Petrograd. Many printed works in publishing "World Literature", lectures, in 1921 led by the Petrograd branch of the Union of poets, was a mentor of young poets in the studio "Resounding Shell. Verses these years are collected in a collection of poems "Pillar of Fire", published in Berlin after his death (1921) edition of 1000 copies.

August 3, 1921, was arrested on charges of involvement in anti-Soviet conspiracy. Later, in 1950, from the materials of the investigation it became clear why - "... did not carry bodies of Soviet power, that he offered to enter into a conspiratorial officers' organization, from which he categorically refused". The exact date of execution of Gumilev is not known, in the words of Anna Akhmatova, the execution took place near Berngardovki near Petrograd.



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