CATHERINE I( second wife of Peter I.)
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Biography CATHERINE I
CATHERINE I Alekseevna (Martha Skavronskaya) (1684-1727), Empress of Russia since 1725, second wife of Peter I. Erected on a throne guards led by a. D. Menshikov, who became the de facto ruler of the State. When it created the Supreme Privy Council
. CATHERINE I Alekseevna (Martha Skavronskaya) [5 (15) April 1684, Livonia 6 (17) May 1727, St. Petersburg], Empress of Russia (from 28 January 1725), second wife of Peter I.
. Catherine and Peter I
. Martha origin is unknown
. According to some reports, she was the daughter of Latvian peasant Samuel Skavronskaia, on the other Swedish Quartermaster AND. Rabe. Education is not received, and her youth in the house of Pastor Gluck in Marienburg (now the town of Aluksne Latvia), where she was both a laundress and cook. It is also likely that she was briefly married to a Swedish dragoon. In 1702, after the capture of Marienburg by Russian troops future Russian empress was a war trophy and was first in the train B. P. Sheremetyev, and then at A. D. Menshikov. Around 1703, Peter I noticed her, and captivated by the beauty of Martha. She became one of his mistresses. Gradually, relations between them became increasingly close. March (soon baptized in the Orthodox tradition under the name of Catherine Alekseevny) differed cheerful, . flat, . gentle character, she can easily adapt to the whims of Peter, . put up with his outbursts of causeless anger, . ably assisted during epilepsy, . easily shared with him the difficulties camp life,
. Lonely and unhappy in his personal life, Peter is increasingly tied to Catherine, born to admit it to his children. Catherine did not directly participate in political matters, but had a definite influence on the king, in particular, is that it is often performed before the king, defender of the Menshikov. According to legend, she saved the king during the Prut campaign, when Russian troops were surrounded. Catherine gave to the Turkish vizier all her jewelry and thereby induce him to sign an armistice. Upon his return to St. Petersburg on Feb. 19, 1712 Peter married to Catherine, and their daughters Anna and Elizabeth (the future Empress Elizabeth) have official status tsesareven. In 1714 in memory of the king established the Prut campaign Order of St.. Catherine, who awarded his wife in her birthday. In May 1724 Peter the first time in the history of Russia crowned as Empress Catherine. It is believed that the king was going to officially proclaim it as his successor, but did not do so after learning about his wife's betrayal with B. Chamberlain
. Empress Catherine
. After the death of Peter the efforts of Menshikov and by relying on the Guard Catherine was raised to the throne
. Because she herself did not possess the skills and knowledge of the statesman, when it was created ruled the country the Supreme Privy Council, spearheaded by Menshikov. Among the most significant events of this time of the opening of the Academy of Sciences, concluded an alliance with Austria and etc.. Being an autocratic empress, Catherine discovered rampant cravings for entertainment: almost all the time she spent at banquets, balls, a variety of festivals, which adversely affected her health, and almost no interest in the affairs of governance. Before his death at the insistence of Menshikov Catherine signed a will on which the throne had to withdraw to the Grand Duke Peter Alekseevich (cm. Peter II), and in the case of his death to her daughters or their descendants.
Semevskii M. I. Alekseevna Queen Katherine, Anna and Willie Mons. L., 1990.
Belyavskii. S. Catherine I. Cinderella on the throne of Russia / / to the throne: the monarchy after Russia's Peter the Great. M., 1993.
Anisimov E. V. Russia without Peter. SPb., 1994.