STANLEY Wendell( American biochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1946)
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Biography STANLEY Wendell
August 16, 1904, Mr.. - June 15, 1971
American biochemist Wendell Meredith Stanley was born in Ridzhville (Indiana), the son of Claire (Plessindzher) and James Stanley, publishers of local newspapers. As a schoolboy, C. often help out by selling newspapers and working in the editorial. After secondary school he enrolled in Ridzhville Erlem College in Richmond (Indiana), where he studied chemistry and mathematics. A gifted student and an athlete, C. in the last year was elected captain of the football team and was thinking about how to become a football coach. In 1926, shortly before the end of Erlem College, he visited the University of Illinois with one of my teachers in chemistry, who introduced him to Roger Adams, professors of chemistry. Adams' fascination with science to arouse. interest in scientific research, and this led him to graduate the University of Illinois, where in 1927. He received a master's, and in 1929,. PhD thesis, dedicated connections, which are used to treat leprosy.
A year after receiving his doctorate, during which P. continued his studies at the University of Illinois, he was awarded a scholarship of the National Research Council to work in the field of chemistry at the Heinrich Wieland, University of Munich. Upon his return the following year in the U.S. with. he became an assistant at Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York, but in 1932. moved to the Institute's laboratory of pathology of animals and plants in Princeton (New Jersey). Here he began studying the viruses that cause disease in plants.
For the first time viruses have been discovered in 1898. Netherlands botanist Martinus Willem Beyerinkom, . who reported, . that the tobacco mosaic - a type of plant diseases - called the vehicle of infection is much smaller, . than the smallest bacteria, . - Such a tiny, . that it can not be seen under the microscope,
. When in 1932. S. began its work, it was known that viruses are capable of reproduction and mutation, and, logically, should represent organisms. However, at the time it seemed doubtful that such a tiny substance could breathe, eat and perform other functions of the exchange.
For the initial study with. chose the tobacco mosaic virus, which is subjected to the action of enzymes trypsin and pepsin (shortly before the selected John X. Northrop), as well as more than 100 chemicals. By 1934, Mr.. S. came to the conclusion that the tobacco mosaic virus consists mainly of protein. Applying the method of Northrop, he was in 1935. received a viral protein in crystalline form, and then proved that these crystals may be dissolved, filtered, cleaned and re-crystallize, without destroying their ability to multiply in plants and infect them. The following year, he singled out from the crystalline tobacco mosaic virus nucleic acid, and in 1937. Two British scientists, Frederick W. Bowden and Norman Y. Payri, found that tobacco mosaic virus is a nucleoprotein (compound of nucleic acids and proteins).
After the U.S. entered World War II, P. was invited to join the Committee for Medical Research of the Research Administration of the USA, located in Washington, DC. In the next three years, he and his colleagues have several strains of influenza virus and the first flu vaccine, for which P. in 1948. was awarded the Honorary Diploma of the President.
"For obtaining pure enzymes and virus proteins' N. and Northrop was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. The other half of the prize was awarded to James B. Sumner. In his Nobel lecture with. noted that since the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus was found more than 300 different viruses, including those that cause smallpox, yellow fever, dengue fever, polio, measles, mumps, pneumonia and common cold. 'A new area of research until the virus actually just called - he added - and there is still much work. Some basic ... issues that relate to how the reproduction and mutation of the virus, have already acquired some form of. Their decision could provide extremely valuable information for biology, chemistry, genetics and medicine '.
Met by chance in 1946. University of California President Robert Sproulom, C. received from him a proposal to establish and chair a laboratory for studying viruses in the University of California at Berkeley, which adopted in 1948. S. There, he led research aimed at further clarifying the nature of viruses. One of his colleagues, Hines Frankel-Konrath, proved that the protein component of the virus is only his 'abode', and his genes are contained in the ribonucleic acid (RNA). That is why the. could not manage to get genetic changes in the tobacco mosaic virus by changing its protein.
In 50-ies. members of the Faculty of the University of California were invited to sign an oath of allegiance to the U.S.. Despite the fact that S., . who was chairman of the university committee on academic freedom, . willingly signed this pledge, . He staunchly defended those, . who refused to do, . Expressing, . such a requirement is an infringement of their rights,
. Position C. played a role, and the court eventually overturned the measure.
In addition to conducting research and perform administrative duties, with. carrying a large teaching load, met in numerous boards and committees. From 1951 to 1958. He was a trustee of Mills College, and since 1945. until his death - Adviser to the National Institutes of Health. He was also a member of the group of experts and consultants of the Commission on viral diseases at the World Health Organization (l951. .. 1966), . the National Council on Cancer National Health Service United States (1952 ... 1956), . the National Scientific Committee on Health Research (1955), . a group of scientific advisers to the National Cancer Institute (1957 ... 1958) and the advisory committee under the Ministry of Health, . Education and Welfare United States (1967 ... 1968).,
. In 1929, Mr.
. S. married Marian Steplz Jay, whom he met when he was in graduate school. They had three daughters and a son.
Later in the course of its research activities. came to the conclusion that it is a virus is the cause of many types of human cancer. He also suggested that viruses were the first form of life on earth. At the V Congress of the Spanish Biochemical Society, held in Salamanca (Spain), C. presented a report on viruses tumors. Scientist died of a heart attack June 15, 1971
With. were awarded: Alder Prize, Harvard University (1938), Nichols Medal of the American Chemical Society (1946) and the award for scientific achievement of the American Medical Association (1966). He was the holder of honorary degrees from many colleges and universities, including Erlem College, Harvard, Yale, Princeton, University of Illinois and the University of Indiana. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, . American Society for Biochemistry, . American Association for the Advancement of Science, . American Chemical Society, . American Philosophical Society and the Society for Experimental Biology, . and foreign member of the scientific organizations in Japan, . Argentina and France.,