Hauptman (Hauptman), Herbert A.( American biophysicist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1985)
Comments for Hauptman (Hauptman), Herbert A.
Biography Hauptman (Hauptman), Herbert A.
genus. February 4, 1917
American biophysicist Herbert Aaron Hauptman was born in New York in the house of Israel and Leach (nee Rosenfeld) Hauptman. He grew up in the Bronx and received his secondary education in the school Trunsenda Harris, who graduated in 1933. Depth study mathematics at the then City College of New York University, where he met with Jerome Karle, a student from Brooklyn. In 1937, Mr.. college X. received a bachelor's degree, and in 1939. Columbia University - Master's degree in mathematics.
Work X. began a statistician at the Census Bureau, then served in the military and U.S. Air Force as an instructor in electronics and later - the officer-meteorologist. In 1947, Mr.. he joined the staff of the Naval Research Laboratory, located in Washington, for the position physics and mathematics, at the same time, he resumed his friendship with Charles. Began their scientific collaboration in research and development of methods for calculation of X-ray data analysis. In 1955, Mr.. H. awarded a doctorate in mathematics at the University of Maryland, for his thesis on the X-ray analysis.
. X-ray analysis was used to determine the spatial configuration of the molecules under the influence of X-rays on pure crystal substance
. Some of the X-rays pass through matter, the other part - is rejected, or diffracted when they pass near the electrons orbiting the nuclei of atoms. This phenomenon was discovered in 1912. German physicist Max von Laue. For registered on photographic films trajectories of X-rays could determine the atomic structure of matter. Using this method, U.L. Bragg and his father U.G. Bragg determined the atomic structure of crystals of different types. Work carried out by Laue and Bragg provided the foundation for studies X. and Carla.
X. and Carla created a mathematical method to determine the spatial structure of molecular crystals such important substances such as hormones, antibiotics and vitamins. Analyzing the intensity of the spots obtained on film, they were able to calculate the angles of deflection of a beam of X-rays, and from these calculations to construct an accurate picture of the molecular structure of the substance.
. X-ray analysis allowed Dorothy K
. Hodgkin, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Max Perutz and other researchers to determine the structure of key protein molecules. However, the methods available to them required laborious and lengthy analysis of the recorded on film spots. The method of Carle and X. allowed to directly connect these spots with the position of atoms in a molecule and thus reduce the time needed to recreate the spatial (three dimensional) structure, with the months (and sometimes several years) to one or two days. However, when these mathematicians published their method in 1950, only a small proportion of scientists was able to assess their proposed benefits, but most of their work was met with frank skepticism, and for 15 years the method of Carle and X. remained without. Recognition came in the 60-ies, after Isabella Karle, Jerome wife, Carla, and physical chemist Naval research base has demonstrated the practical application of the method in the analysis of large molecules.
. Over the years in the Naval Research Laboratory X
. headed the department of mathematical physics (1965 ... 1967), . was director of the department of mathematics and scientific information (1967 ... 1968), . head of the Department of Applied Mathematics (1968 ... 1969) and the head of the software department optics (1969 ... 1970),
. From 1970 to 1972. He - Deputy Director for Science Medical Foundation at Buffalo (New York) - a small institution, . supported by private funding, . whose main task was to study the functions of the endocrine system and the deviations from the norm in her, . caused by hormonal dysfunction,
. In 1972. he became vice president and scientific director of the medical fund, and since 1970. also a professor of Biophysics, University of Buffalo (New York).
In 1985, Mr.. H. and Charles was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for significant achievements in the establishment of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures'. The methods that they developed, led to major advances in the field of crystallography and are now one system, which is used in the analysis of the majority of new compounds. They practically used for the study of large complex organic molecules involved in the metabolism. By allowing chemists to identify the biologically active components of the molecules, these methods make it possible to create an unlimited number of new drugs, such as synthetic analogues of steroid hormones for the treatment of breast cancer. Researchers have used these methods to study the enkephalins (natural painkillers product of the brain) and to create drugs based on them.
X. married Edith Sitrinell, teacher and they live in Buffalo, they have two daughters. H. like walking, swimming, classical music and the construction of polyhedra of colored glass - a hobby that requires the ability to think and calculate the volume with great precision, t. e art, such as that which is necessary for him to work on calculations of the molecular structure of substances.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, X. was awarded the basic sciences of the American Research Society (1959), along with Jerome Karle - Memorial Award AL. Paterson crystallographic American Society (1984). He is a member of the National Committee for Crystallography, the U.S. and the American Association of Independent Research Institutes. In 1986. he received an honorary degree from City College of New York University.